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The cruciform hypothesis states that if a visual evoked potential component originates in V1, then stimuli placed in the upper versus lower visual fields will generate responses with opposite polarity at the scalp. This diagnostic has been used by many studies as a definitive marker of V1 sources. To provide an empirical test of the validity of the(More)
The cruciform model posits that if a Visual Evoked Potential component originates in cortical area V1, then stimuli placed in the upper versus lower visual field will generate responses with opposite polarity at the scalp. In our original paper (Ales et al., 2010b) we showed that the cruciform model provides an insufficient criterion for identifying V1(More)
During decision making, neurons in multiple brain regions exhibit responses that are correlated with decisions. However, it remains uncertain whether or not various forms of decision-related activity are causally related to decision making. Here we address this question by recording and reversibly inactivating the lateral intraparietal (LIP) and middle(More)
Neurons in the macaque lateral intraparietal (LIP) area exhibit firing rates that appear to ramp upward or downward during decision-making. These ramps are commonly assumed to reflect the gradual accumulation of evidence toward a decision threshold. However, the ramping in trial-averaged responses could instead arise from instantaneous jumps at different(More)
We introduce a novel framework for estimating visual sensitivity using a continuous target-tracking task in concert with a dynamic internal model of human visual performance. Observers used a mouse cursor to track the center of a two-dimensional Gaussian luminance blob as it moved in a random walk in a field of dynamic additive Gaussian luminance noise. To(More)
Many signals, such as spike trains recorded in multi-channel electrophysiological recordings, may be represented as the sparse sum of translated and scaled copies of waveforms whose timing and amplitudes are of interest. From the aggregate signal, one may seek to estimate the identities, amplitudes, and translations of the waveforms that compose the signal.(More)
Shadlen et al's Comment focuses on extrapolations of our results that were not implied or asserted in our Report. They discuss alternate analyses of average firing rates in other tasks, the relationship between neural activity and behavior, and possible extensions of the standard models we examined. Although interesting to contemplate, these points are not(More)
We introduce a novel framework for estimating visual sensitivity using a continuous target-tracking task in concert with a dynamic internal model of human visual performance. In our main experiment, observers used a mouse cursor to track the center of a 2D Gaussian luminance target as it moved in a Brownian walk in a field of dynamic Gaussian luminance(More)
Patterns of neuronal correlations can provide important clues about the structure of the underlying network and how it processes information. Several recent studies have found that neural population activity across a region can be explained in large part by a shared, low-dimensional signal [1-5]. Population-wide correlation is likely to influence the local(More)