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BACKGROUND Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed(More)
BACKGROUND In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about(More)
INTRODUCTION Cost-effectiveness analyses are important tools in efforts to prioritise interventions for obesity prevention. Modelling facilitates evaluation of multiple scenarios with varying assumptions. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of conservative scenarios for two commonly proposed policy-based interventions: front-of-pack 'traffic-light'(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate global, regional (21 regions) and national (187 countries) sodium intakes in adults in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN Bayesian hierarchical modelling using all identifiable primary sources. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY We searched and obtained published and unpublished data from 142 surveys of 24 h urinary sodium and 103 of dietary sodium(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). METHODS We constructed a mathematical(More)
BACKGROUND Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up(More)
BACKGROUND For some phenomena the mean of population distributions predicts the proportion of people exceeding a threshold value. AIMS To investigate whether in depression, too, the population mean predicts the number of individuals at the extreme end of the distribution. METHOD We used data from the European Outcome in Depression International Network(More)
BACKGROUND Excess intake of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been shown to result in weight gain. To address the growing epidemic of obesity, one option is to combine programmes that target individual behaviour change with a fiscal policy such as excise tax on SSBs. This study evaluates the literature on SSB taxes or price increases, and their potential(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from(More)
BACKGROUND Given escalating rates of chronic disease, broad-reach and cost-effective interventions to increase physical activity and improve dietary intake are needed. The cost-effectiveness of a Telephone Counselling intervention to improve physical activity and diet, targeting adults with established chronic diseases in a low socio-economic area of a(More)