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We review approaches to predicting carbon and nitrogen allocation in forest models in terms of their underlying assumptions and their resulting strengths and limitations. Empirical and allometric methods are easily developed and computationally efficient, but lack the power of evolution-based approaches to explain and predict multifaceted effects of(More)
The role and importance of ecological interactions for evolutionary responses to environmental changes is to large extent unknown. Here it is shown that interspecific competition may slow down rates of adaptation substantially and fundamentally change patterns of adaptation to long-term environmental changes. In the model investigated here, species compete(More)
This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about body weight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were(More)
Background: The complexity and dynamical nature of community interactions make modelling a useful tool for understanding how communities develop over time and how they respond to external perturbations. Large community-evolution models (LCEMs) are particularly promising, since they can address both ecological and evolutionary questions, and can give rise to(More)
Phenological changes are well documented biological effects of current climate change but their adaptive value and demographic consequences are poorly known. Game theoretical models have shown that deviating from the fitness-maximising phenology can be evolutionary stable under frequency-dependent selection. We study eco-evolutionary responses to climate(More)
Phenology is an important part of life history that is gaining increased attention because of recent climate change. We use game theory to model phenological adaptation in migratory birds that compete for territories at their breeding grounds. We investigate how the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for the timing of arrival is affected by changes in the(More)
Evolutionary branching has been suggested as a mechanism to explain ecological speciation processes. Recent studies indicate however that demographic stochasticity and environmental fluctuations may prevent branching through stochastic competitive exclusion. Here we extend previous theory in several ways; we use a more mechanistic ecological model, we(More)
Many species exhibit two discrete male morphs: fighters and sneakers. Fighters are large and possess weapons but may mature slowly. Sneakers are small and have no weapons but can sneak matings and may mature quickly to start mating earlier in life than fighters. However, how differences in competitive ability and life history interact to determine male(More)