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BACKGROUND Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a genetically complex bacterium which can adopt and switch between a free-living or biofilm lifestyle, a versatility that enables it to thrive in many different environments and contributes to its success as a human pathogen. RESULTS Transcriptomes derived from growth states relevant to the lifestyle of P. aeruginosa(More)
The Single Amino Acid Polymorphism database (SAAPdb) is a new resource for the analysis and visualization of the structural effects of mutations. Our analytical approach is to map single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and pathogenic deviations (PDs) to protein structural data held within the Protein Data Bank. By mapping mutations onto protein structures,(More)
Learning classifier systems traditionally use genetic algorithms to facilitate rule discovery, where rule fitness is payoff based. Current research has shifted to the use of accuracy-based fitness. This paper re-examines the use of a particular payoff-based learning classifier system--ZCS. By using simple difference equation models of ZCS, we show that this(More)
Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) represents a new and alternative platform to conventional quantitative-PCR (qPCR) for the quantitation of DNA templates. However, the proposed improvement in sensitivity and reproducibility offered by ddPCR is not yet fully proven, partly because the delineation between positive and negative responses is not always clear. Data(More)
In HIV-1 infection, a population of latently infected cells facilitates viral persistence despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). With the aim of identifying individuals in whom ART might induce a period of viraemic control on stopping therapy, we hypothesised that quantification of the pool of latently infected cells in primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) would(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic HCV infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity globally. The innate and adaptive immune responses are thought to be important in determining viral outcomes. Polymorphisms associated with the IFNL3 (IL28B) gene are strongly associated with spontaneous clearance and treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE This study investigates the(More)
For artificial entities to achieve true autonomy and display complex lifelike behavior, they will need to exploit appropriate adaptable learning algorithms. In this context adaptability implies flexibility guided by the environment at any given time and an open-ended ability to learn appropriate behaviors. This article examines the use of(More)