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Obesity is a disorder of energy balance, indicating a chronic disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Recently, the mouse ob gene, and subsequently its human and rat homologues, have been cloned. The ob gene product, leptin, is expressed exclusively in adipose tissue, and appears to be a signalling factor regulating body-weight homeostasis and(More)
In vivo and in vitro experiments strongly support the view that marked increases in the levels of mRNA and in the activities of lipogenic enzymes that occur in liver and white adipose tissue of the rat after weaning to a high-carbohydrate diet are dependent on an increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. An increased glucose metabolism is(More)
Beyond the presence of insulin receptors, little is known of the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of insulin in the placenta. We show that phosphorylation of MAPK and protein kinase B were enhanced 286 +/- 23% and 393 +/- 17% upon insulin stimulation of JAr placental cells. MAPK activation was prevented by pretreatment with PD98059 but was(More)
In most of the mammals, birth and weaning are two periods of nutritional transitions. Whereas the fetus oxidizes mainly glucose, lactate and aminoacids, the newborn is fed with milk, a high fat, low carbohydrate diet. At weaning, milk is replaced progressively by the adult diet which contains less fat and more carbohydrate. In the hours and days following(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protein essential for the development and maintenance of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, causing responsive neurones to increase in size and to extend neurites. Biochemically, the selective induction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase key enzymes in catecholamine biosynthesis is one of its(More)
The cellular localization of GLUT3 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein was examined in human term placenta using a combination of methodologies. In situ hybridization indicated that GLUT3 mRNA was present in the trophoblast cell layer and in vascular endothelium with a heterogeneous distribution pattern. GLUT3 protein migrating at an apparent(More)
Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein expression was characterized in human and rodent term placentas. A 50-kDa protein was detected, by immunoblotting, in term human placenta at levels averaging 25% of those found in white adipose tissue. It was also present, albeit at lower levels, in mouse and rat placentas. The specificity of the 50-kDa signal was(More)
This brief review focuses on the transcriptional regulation of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L-CPT I) by pancreatic and thyroid hormones and by long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Both glucagon and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) enhanced the transcription of the gene encoding L-CPT I, whereas insulin had the opposite effect. Interestingly, the(More)
The trace element vanadium is a potent insulinomimetic agent in vitro. Oral administration of vanadate to rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg i.v.) caused a 65% fall in plasma glucose levels without modifying low insulinemia. We studied whether the hypoglycemic effect of vanadate was associated with altered expression of genes involved in key(More)