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We have developed a lightweight plastic goggle with rigid contact lens inserts that can be applied to the eyes of newly hatched chicks to explore the range and accuracy of the developmental mechanism that responds to retinal defocus. Convex and concave lenses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and +30 D were applied to one eye on the day of hatching. The chick eye responds(More)
Application of a translucent goggle over the chick eye on the first day after hatching led to the development of myopia. By the 14th day, the mean refractive error was about -10.0 D. Significant increases in axial and equatorial diameters were observed when the treated eyes were compared with untreated contralateral eyes. The lens did not appear to be(More)
Split beams of varying separations from a helium-neon laser were directed through the crystalline lenses of a number of vertebrates. Photographs of the focal effects indicate the extent to which the refractive index variation of the lens and lens shape control spherical aberration. Of the fish studied, only rock bass lenses are relatively free of spherical(More)
Ocular dimensions and refractive state data for chicks 0 to 14 days of age were obtained from 234 untreated control eyes of birds treated unilaterally in previous work involving various defocussing lenses and/or translucent goggles. Refractive state and corneal curvatures were measured in vivo by retinoscopy and ophthalmometry respectively. Intraocular(More)
Myopia, as characterized by a large refractive error (e.g. -10.7 +/- 0.4 D), was induced in post-hatch chicks by a 14 day application of a goggle that was designed to blur the retinal image. In comparison to untreated eyes, the treated eye showed significant changes in wet eye weight and both axial and equatorial lengths. However, the lenses of myopic and(More)
The shape and focal properties (spherical aberration) of the ocular lens of hatchling, yearling and adult clearnose skates (Raja eglanteria) were examined. In contrast to the spherical shape of the typical teleost lens, the lens of the clearnose skate is slightly aspherical; equatorial diameter being greater than axial diameter. The asphericity is(More)
Refractive states measured by retinoscopy and photorefraction indicate that rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) penguins are approximately emmetropic in air and water. Extensive myopia in air, as predicted by early authors, is nonexistent. Photorefractive measurements of refractive state in(More)
PURPOSE Smad3, a mediator of TGF-beta signaling has been shown to be involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of lens epithelial cells in a lens injury model. In this study, the role of Smad3 in anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC) formation was investigated in a transgenic TGF-beta/Smad3 knockout mouse model. METHODS TGF-beta1(More)