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BACKGROUND New methods are needed for research into non-model organisms, to monitor the effects of toxic disruption at both the molecular and functional organism level. We exposed earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister) to sub-lethal levels of copper (10-480 mg/kg soil) for 70 days as a real-world situation, and monitored both molecular (cDNA transcript(More)
Metabolic profiling of tissues needs special attention, because the compartmentalization of cellular constituents will be abolished by sample homogenization. This loss of partitioning leads to protein and metabolite instability in extracts, and therefore metabolite extraction protocols need to ensure very rapid inactivation of macromolecules as well as(More)
BACKGROUND Many Caenorhabditis elegans mutations increase longevity and much evidence suggests that they do so at least partly via changes in metabolism. However, up until now there has been no systematic investigation of how the metabolic networks of long-lived mutants differ from those of normal worms. Metabolomic technologies, that permit the analysis of(More)
Studies of evolutionary responses to novel environments typically consider single species or perhaps pairs of interacting species. However, all organisms co-occur with many other species, resulting in evolutionary dynamics that might not match those predicted using single species approaches. Recent theories predict that species interactions in diverse(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic profiling holds promise with regard to deepening our understanding of infection biology and disease states. The objectives of our study were to assess the global metabolic responses to an Echinostoma caproni infection in the mouse, and to compare the biomarkers extracted from different biofluids (plasma, stool, and urine) in terms of(More)
BACKGROUND The 'exposome' represents the accumulation of all environmental exposures across a lifetime. Top-down strategies are required to assess something this comprehensive, and could transform our understanding of how environmental factors affect human health. Metabolic profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics) defines an individual's metabolic phenotype,(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and in recent years its increased prevalence has been linked to the emergence of hypervirulent clones such as the PCR-ribotype 027. Characteristically, C. difficile infection (CDI) occurs after treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the normal gut(More)
UNLABELLED Nitrogen regulation in Escherichia coli is a model system for gene regulation in bacteria. Growth on glutamine as a sole nitrogen source is assumed to be nitrogen limiting, inferred from slow growth and strong NtrB/NtrC-dependent gene activation. However, we show that under these conditions, the intracellular glutamine concentration is not(More)
Fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR) is often used to help maintain synchronous populations of Caenorhabditis elegans adults, for instance as would typically be the case in studying age-related effects. However, given that FUdR inhibits DNA synthesis and therefore reproduction, it will clearly have significant wide-ranging biological effects. It is often assumed that(More)