Jacob D. McDonald

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BACKGROUND Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to(More)
In this study we compared a "baseline" condition of uncontrolled diesel engine exhaust (DEE) emissions generated with current (circa 2003) certification fuel to an emissions-reduction (ER) case with low sulfur fuel and a catalyzed particle trap. Lung toxicity assessments (resistance to respiratory viral infection, lung inflammation, and oxidative stress)(More)
Wood smoke is a significant source of air pollution in many parts of the United States, and epidemiological data suggest a causal relationship between elevated wood smoke levels and health effects. The present study was designed to provide information on the potential respiratory health responses to subchronic wood smoke exposures in a Native American(More)
Traffic-generated air pollution-exposure is associated with adverse effects in the central nervous system (CNS) in both human exposures and animal models, including neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. While alterations in the blood brain barrier (BBB) have been implicated as a potential mechanism of air pollution-induced CNS pathologies, pathways(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency leading to increased levels of phenylalanine in the brain. Hyperactivity is reportedly induced by a high level of orexin A, and therefore orexin A content was studied in the PKU mice. Hypothalamus and brain stem had higher levels of orexin A compared to cerebrum and(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to air pollution and, more specifically, particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects. However, the specific PM characteristics responsible for biological effects have not been defined. OBJECTIVES In this project we examined the composition, sources, and relative toxicity of samples of PM with aerodynamic diameter(More)
Brevetoxins are potent neurotoxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Exposure to brevetoxins may occur during a K. brevis red tide when the compounds become aerosolized by wind and surf. This study assessed possible adverse health effects associated with inhalation exposure to brevetoxin 3, one of the major brevetoxins produced by K.(More)
In this study we investigated the statistical relationship between particle and semivolatile organic chemical constituents in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust samples, and toxicity as measured by inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. Exhaust samples were collected from "normal" and "high-emitting" gasoline and diesel(More)
Hardwood smoke (HWS) from wood burning stoves and fireplaces can be a significant contributor to the composition of ambient air pollution. We hypothesize that the inhalation of HWS by ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice with preexisting lung inflammation leads to the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Two different models were employed to characterize(More)
Epidemiological studies have implicated wood smoke as a risk factor for exacerbating asthma. However, comparisons of findings in animal models with those in humans are currently not possible, because detailed clinically relevant measurements of pulmonary function are not available in animal studies. Brown Norway rats were immunized with ovalbumin and(More)