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1. Sensory feedback plays a major role in the regulation of the spinal neural locomotor circuitry in cats. The present study investigated whether sensory feedback also plays an important role during walking in 20 healthy human subjects, by arresting or unloading the ankle extensors 6 deg for 210 ms in the stance phase of gait. 2. During the stance phase of(More)
1. The objective of this study was to determine which afferents contribute to the medium latency response of the soleus stretch reflex resulting from an unexpected perturbation during human walking. 2. Fourteen healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.5 km h(-1) with the left ankle attached to a portable stretching device. The soleus(More)
1. The modulation of the short-latency stretch reflex during walking at different walking speeds was investigated and compared with the stretch reflex during standing in healthy human subjects. 2. Ankle joint stretches were applied by a system able to rotate the human ankle joint during treadmill walking in any phase of the step cycle. The system consisted(More)
The present study was carried out to investigate the long-latency soleus stretch reflexes M2 (peak latency of approximately 85 ms) and M3 (peak latency of approximately 115 ms) during walking in healthy and spastic multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. An 8 degrees stretch was applied to the ankle extensors of the left leg in 8 healthy subjects during normal(More)
The existence of transcortical reflex pathways in the control of distal arm and hand muscles in man is now widely accepted. Much more controversy exists regarding a possible contribution of such reflexes to the control of leg muscles. It is often assumed that transcortical reflex pathways play no, or only a minor, role in the control of leg muscles.(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of feedback from large-diameter sensory fibers to the adaptation of soleus muscle activity after small ankle trajectory modifications during human walking. Small-amplitude and slow-velocity ankle dorsiflexion enhancements and reductions were applied during the stance phase of the gait cycle to mimic(More)
The modulation of the short latency stretch reflex of the soleus muscle during walking was investigated in seven spastic multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and nine healthy control subjects. Ankle joint stretches were applied by a system which can rotate that ankle joint in any phase of the step cycle during treadmill walking. The torque related to the muscle(More)
The main objective of this study was to characterize the stretch reflex response of the human thigh muscles to an unexpected knee flexion at the transition from stance to swing during walking. Eleven healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed. Reliable and constant knee flexions (6-12 degrees amplitude, 230-350 degrees /s velocity, 220(More)
Stretch of the ankle dorsiflexors was applied at different times of the walking cycle in 17 human subjects. When the stretch was applied in the swing phase, only small and variable reflex responses were observed in the active tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Two of the reflex responses that could be distinguished had latencies which were comparable with the(More)
The nucleator is a well-established manual stereological method of estimating mean cell volume from observations on random cell transects through reference points of the cells. In this paper, we present an automated version of the nucleator that uses automatic segmentation of the boundaries of the cell transects. An expert supervises the process. If the(More)