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The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expected to raise adult life expectancy in populations with high HIV prevalence. Using data from a population cohort of over 101,000 individuals in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we measured changes in adult life expectancy for 2000-2011. In 2003, the year before ART became available in the public-sector(More)
AIMS The aim of this study was to assess changes in alcohol use in the USA during the Great Recession. METHODS Drinking participation, drinking frequency, drinking intensity, total alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were assessed in a nationally representative sample of 2,050,431 US women and men aged 18 and older, interviewed between(More)
BACKGROUND Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order(More)
BACKGROUND Standard approaches to estimation of losses in the HIV cascade of care are typically cross-sectional and do not include the population stages before linkage to clinical care. We used indiviual-level longitudinal cascade data, transition by transition, including population stages, both to identify the health-system losses in the cascade and to(More)
Antiretroviral therapy for HIV may have important economic benefits for patients and their households. We quantified the impact of HIV treatment on employment status among HIV patients in rural South Africa who were enrolled in a public-sector HIV treatment program supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. We linked clinical data from(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence of social exposure to a large, government-run ART programme in rural South Africa. METHOD Clinical data on 6681 patients were matched with demographic data on a nearly complete cohort of 102,359 people residing in the programme catchment area. We calculated the proportion of residents in the demographic surveillance(More)
BACKGROUND HIV prevalence estimates from population-based surveys are vulnerable to selection bias if HIV status is missing for a proportion of the eligible population. Standard approaches, such as imputation, to correct prevalence estimates for selective nonparticipation assume that data are "missing at random." These approaches lead to biased estimates,(More)
BACKGROUND An estimated 2·1 million individuals are newly infected with HIV every year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported conflicting evidence for the association between education and HIV risk, and no randomised trial has identified a causal effect for education on HIV incidence. We aimed to use a policy reform in secondary schooling(More)
When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in(More)
BACKGROUND Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed--at the population level--whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also(More)