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An understanding of the nucleation and growth mechanism of bimetallic nanoparticles in solvothermal synthesis is important for further development of nanoparticles with tailored nanostructures and properties. Here the formation of PtRu alloy nanoparticles in a solvothermal synthesis using metal acetylacetonate salts as precursors and ethanol as both the(More)
Nanocrystalline ZrO(2) samples with narrow size distributions and mean particle sizes below 10 nm have been synthesized in a continuous flow reactor in near and supercritical water as well as supercritical isopropyl alcohol using a wide range of temperatures, pressures, concentrations and precursors. The samples were comprehensively characterized by powder(More)
Understanding nanoparticle-formation reactions requires multi-technique in situ characterisation, since no single characterisation technique provides adequate information. Here, the first combined small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)/total-scattering study of nanoparticle formation is presented. We report on the formation(More)
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising thermo-chemical processing technology for the production of biofuels but produces large amounts of process water. Therefore recirculation of process water from HTL of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is investigated. Two sets of recirculation on a continuous reactor system using K2CO3 as catalyst(More)
Under the experimental condition that all Bragg peaks in a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern have the same shape, one can readily obtain the Bragg intensities without fitting any parameters. This condition is fulfilled at the P02.1 beamline at PETRA III using the seventh harmonic from a 23 mm-period undulator (60 keV) at a distance of 65 m. For grain(More)
This work provides a comprehensive characterization of the gas phase from hydrothermal liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) collected during a 24-h continuous experiment. The gas consisted mainly of CO2, CO, H2, CH4 and C2H6 accounting for 96 v/v% while further analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS)(More)
In a powder diffraction pattern one measures the intensity of Miller-indexed Bragg peaks versus the wavevector transfer sinθ/λ. With increasing wavevector transfer the density of occurrence of Bragg peaks increases while their intensity decreases until they vanish into the background level. The lowest possible background level is that due to Compton(More)
Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising technique for the production of bio-oil. The process produces an oil phase, a gas phase, a solid residue, and an aqueous phase. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is used to analyze the complex aqueous phase. Especially small organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds are of interest. The(More)
Crystalline silicon is an ideal compound to test the current state of experimental structure factors and corresponding electron densities. High-quality structure factors have been measured on crystalline silicon with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. They are in excellent agreement with benchmark Pendellösung data having comparable accuracy and(More)