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BACKGROUND The cardiovascular safety and efficacy of many current antihyperglycemic agents, including saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, are unclear. METHODS We randomly assigned 16,492 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of, or were at risk for, cardiovascular events to receive saxagliptin or placebo and followed them(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus and heart failure frequently coexist. However, few diabetes mellitus trials have prospectively evaluated and adjudicated heart failure as an end point. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 16 492 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of, or at risk of, cardiovascular events were randomized to saxagliptin or placebo(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to examine the prevalence and predictors of influenza vaccination among participants in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) study and investigate associations between receiving influenza vaccine and cardiovascular death or heart failure(More)
BACKGROUND There is concern that antidiabetic incretin-based drugs, including dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues, can increase the risk of heart failure. Ongoing clinical trials may not have large enough samples to effectively address this issue. METHODS We applied a common protocol in the analysis of(More)
CONTEXT Among adult patients with liver disease, the ability to identify those most likely to have cirrhosis noninvasively is challenging. OBJECTIVE To identify simple clinical indicators that can exclude or detect cirrhosis in adults with known or suspected liver disease. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (1966 to December 2011) and reference(More)
OBJECTIVES Saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing endogenous active, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in response to food, which augments insulin secretion and decreases glucagon release. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
BACKGROUND Living alone, a proxy for social support, has been inconsistently linked with cardiovascular risk. METHODS We investigated whether living alone was associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular risk in the global REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry. Stable outpatients at risk of or with atherothrombosis(More)
BACKGROUND Some glucose-lowering drugs or strategies adversely affect cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to assess the extent to which glucose lowering by various drugs or strategies increases the risk of heart failure in patients with or at risk for type 2 diabetes, and to establish whether risk is associated with achieved differences in glycaemia or weight(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to investigate whether fertility therapy might contribute to subsequent cardiovascular disease. BACKGROUND Fertility medications are used for 1% of births yet may also lead to endothelial injury with long-term adverse consequences for the mother. METHODS A population-based cohort analysis was performed of women(More)
AIMS Recent trials have examined the effect of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in a variety of patient populations, with heterogeneous results regarding benefit and safety, specifically with regard to cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing more than a year of DAPT with aspirin(More)