Jacky Bernard

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Tumor growth promotes the expansion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T reg) cells that counteract T cell-mediated immune responses. An inverse correlation between natural killer (NK) cell activation and T reg cell expansion in tumor-bearing patients, shown here, prompted us to address the role of T reg cells in controlling innate antitumor immunity. Our(More)
HIV type 1 (HIV-1) not only directly kills infected CD4(+) T cells but also induces immunosuppression of uninfected T cells. Two immunosuppressive proteins, interferon alpha (IFNalpha) and extracellular Tat, mediate this process because specific antibodies against these proteins prevent generation of suppressor cells in HIV-1-infected peripheral blood(More)
Mutant isoforms of the KIT or PDGF receptors expressed by gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are considered the therapeutic targets for STI571 (imatinib mesylate; Gleevec), a specific inhibitor of these tyrosine kinase receptors. Case reports of clinical efficacy of Gleevec in GISTs lacking the typical receptor mutations prompted a search for an(More)
Current immunization protocols in cancer patients involve CTL-defined tumor peptides. Mature dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent APCs for the priming of naive CD8(+) T cells, eventually leading to tumor eradication. Because DC can secrete MHC class I-bearing exosomes, we addressed whether exosomes pulsed with synthetic peptides could subserve the DC(More)
Long-term cultures were established of HTLV-III-infected T4 cells from patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and of T4 cells from normal donors after infection of the cells in vitro. By initially reducing the number of cells per milliliter of culture medium it was possible to grow the infected cells for 50 to 60 days. As with(More)
Cell surface proteoglycans play an important part in the functional and metabolic behaviour of leucocytes. We studied the expression of cell surface proteoglycans in human monocytes, in monocyte-derived immature and mature dendritic cells and in macrophages by metabolic labelling with [(35)S]-sulphate, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(More)
The first experimental immunization of humans against the AIDS retrovirus, HIV-1, was started in a series of HIV seronegative, healthy volunteers in November 1986. For the primary vaccination recombinant vaccinia virus (V25) expressing the complete gp160 env protein of the HTLV-IIIB strain of HIV-1 was introduced by scarification. This elicited a weak(More)
A principal feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is depletion of T4 lymphocytes, which is partly due to a direct cytopathic effect of the virus. Both syncytial formation (viral-induced cell fusion) and premature cell death have been cited as the major cause for this phenomenon. By kinetic analysis of cell proliferation and cell lysis we show that(More)
Ideal vaccines should be stable, safe, molecularly defined, and out-of-shelf reagents efficient at triggering effector and memory Ag-specific T cell-based immune responses. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes could be considered as novel peptide-based vaccines because exosomes harbor a discrete set of proteins, bear functional MHC class I and II molecules that(More)
Exposure to HIV type 1 (HIV-1) does not usually lead to infection. Although this could be because of insufficient virus titer, there is now abundant evidence that some individuals resist infection even when directly exposed to a high titer of HIV. This protection recently has been correlated with homozygous mutations of an HIV-1 coreceptor, namely CCR5, the(More)