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A PCR system for the detection and identification of group IV spirochetes (Serpulina pilosicoli) was designed to complement biochemical tests, e.g., the hippurate hydrolysis and beta-glucosidase tests, and to verify the accuracy of a previously proposed biochemical classification system. The PCR assay was based on amplification of a segment of the 16S rRNA(More)
Clinical and laboratory markers of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection were studied during the first 3 months after intravenous inoculation of rhesus macaques. Virus-binding serum antibody titres were correlated strongly with disease progression (P < 0.005) and were predictive of disease outcome by 7 weeks after inoculation. Low virus-binding(More)
As clinical toxoplasmosis is not considered a problem in pigs, the main reason to implement a control strategy against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in this species is to reduce the establishment of T. gondii tissue cysts in pork, consequently reducing the risk of the parasite entering the human food chain. Consumption of T. gondii tissue cysts from raw or(More)
Protection of cattle from alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1)-induced malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) has been described previously, using an attenuated virus vaccine in an unlicensed adjuvant. The vaccine was hypothesised to induce a protective barrier of virus-neutralising antibody in the oro-nasal region, supported by the observation of high titre(More)
The aim of this study was to stimulate immunity in the oro-nasal-pharyngeal region of cattle to protect them from alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1)-induced malignant catarrhal fever. Attenuated C500 strain AlHV-1 was used along with Freund's adjuvant intramuscularly (IM) in the upper neck region to immunise cattle. Virulent C500 strain AlHV-1 was used for(More)
We have characterized a novel, captured and fully functional viral interleukin (IL)-10 homologue ((OvHV)IL-10) from the gammaherpesvirus ovine herpesvirus 2. Unlike IL-10 homologues from other gammaherpesviruses, the (OvHV)IL-10 peptide sequence was highly divergent from that of the host species. The (OvHV)IL-10 gene is unique amongst virus captured genes(More)
Orf virus encodes a range of immuno-modulatory genes that interfere with host anti-virus immune and inflammatory effector mechanisms. The function of these reflects the pathogenesis of orf. The orf virus interferon resistance protein (OVIFNR) and virus IL-10 (vIL-10) inhibit interferon production and activity. In addition the vIL-10 suppresses inflammatory(More)
Orf virus is the prototype parapoxvirus that causes the contagious skin disease orf. It encodes an orthologue of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Recombinant orf viruses were constructed in which the viral interleukin-10 (vorfIL-10) was disabled (vorfIL-10ko) and reinserted (vorfrevIL-10) at the same locus and compared to wild-type virus for their ability(More)
Simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6PD (SHIV89.6PD) was pathogenic after intrarectal inoculation of rhesus macaques. Infection was achieved with a minimum of 2,500 tissue culture infectious doses of cell-free virus stock, and there was no evidence for transient viremia in animals receiving subinfectious doses by the intrarectal route. Some animals(More)
There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth dilution. The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78T ATCC 27164T(More)