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Whilst MRI is routinely used for the assessment and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, there is poor correspondence between clinical disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) patients and conventional MRI markers of disease activity (e.g., number of enhancing lesions). As PPMS patients show diffuse and global myelin loss, the aim of this(More)
With expanding potential clinical applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) it is important to test how reliable different measures of fMRI activation are between subjects and sessions and between centres. This study compared variability across 17 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (HC) in 5 European(More)
Short-term adaptation indicates the attenuation of the functional MRI (fMRI) response during repeated task execution. It is considered to be a physiological process, but it is unknown whether short-term adaptation changes significantly in patients with brain disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to investigate short-term adaptation during a(More)
OBJECTIVE To generate evidence on the longer term cost effectiveness of disease modifying treatments in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN Prospective cohort study with historical comparator. SETTING Specialist multiple sclerosis clinics in 70 centres in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS Patients with relapsing-remitting(More)
Congenital myasthenic syndromes are inherited disorders of neuromuscular transmission characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency syndromes, in which levels of this receptor at the neuromuscular junction are severely reduced, may be caused by mutations within genes encoding the AChR or the(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have demonstrated benefits of rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the neuroscientific foundations for rehabilitation in MS are poorly established. OBJECTIVES As rehabilitation and motor learning share similar mechanisms of brain plasticity, we test whether the dynamics of skill learning are preserved in MS(More)
Axonal damage is a major factor contributing to permanent disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); it has been extensively investigated in the brain using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this study, MRS was used to investigate the degree of neuronal damage in the cervical spinal cord in MS. Spectra were acquired from spinal cord and(More)
BACKGROUND Risk sharing schemes represent an innovative and important approach to the problems of rationing and achieving cost-effectiveness in high cost or controversial health interventions. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of risk sharing schemes, looking at long term clinical outcomes, to determine the price at which high cost treatments would(More)
There is increasing interest in the role of antibodies targeting specific membrane proteins in neurological and other diseases. The target(s) of these pathogenic antibodies is known in a few diseases, usually when candidate cell surface proteins have been tested. Approaches for identifying new antigens have mainly resulted in the identification of(More)
The role of antibodies to specific neuronal and muscle ion channels in the etiology of neuromuscular transmission disorders is now well accepted. In addition, maternal antibodies can cross the placenta and cause neonatal disease or even alter the development of the infant, raising the possibility that some neurodevelopmental conditions could be caused by(More)