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Patients presenting with subacute amnesia are frequently seen in acute neurological practice. Amongst the differential diagnoses, herpes simplex encephalitis, Korsakoff's syndrome and limbic encephalitis should be considered. Limbic encephalitis is typically a paraneoplastic syndrome with a poor prognosis; thus, identifying those patients with potentially(More)
Recent findings in the animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, implicate a novel CD4+ T-cell subset (TH17), characterized by the secretion of interleukin-17 (IL-17), in disease pathogenesis. To elucidate its role in MS, brain tissues from patients with MS were compared to controls. We detected expression of IL-17(More)
Multiple sclerosis is still regarded primarily as a disease of the white matter. However, recent evidence suggests that there may be significant involvement of gray matter. Here, we have used magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo and histopathology postmortem to estimate thalamic neuronal loss in patients with multiple(More)
IMPORTANCE Most patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and many with NMO spectrum disorder have autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Abs), but recently, myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) have been found in some patients. Here, we showed that patients with NMO/NMOSD with MOG-Abs demonstrate differences when compared with patients(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of putative autoimmune aetiology. Early discrimination between multiple sclerosis (MS) and NMO is important, as optimum treatment for both diseases may differ considerably. Recently, using indirect immunofluorescence analysis, a new serum autoantibody(More)
IMPORTANCE Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease of the optic nerves and spinal cord that leads to blindness and paralysis. Effective immunosuppression is the standard of care for relapse prevention. OBJECTIVE To compare the relapse and treatment failure rates among patients receiving the 3 most common forms of immunosuppression for NMO:(More)
Since its initial reports in the 19th century, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) had been thought to involve only the optic nerves and spinal cord. However, the discovery of highly specific anti-aquaporin-4 antibody diagnostic biomarker for NMO enabled recognition of more diverse clinical spectrum of manifestations. Brain MRI abnormalities in patients seropositive(More)
Mutations in DOK7 have recently been shown to underlie a recessive congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) associated with small simplified neuromuscular junctions ('synaptopathy') but normal acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholinesterase function. We identified DOK7 mutations in 27 patients from 24 kinships. Mutation 1124_1127dupTGCC was common, present in(More)
With expanding potential clinical applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) it is important to test how reliable different measures of fMRI activation are between subjects and sessions and between centres. This study compared variability across 17 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (HC) in 5 European(More)
In this multicenter study, we used dynamic causal modeling to characterize the abnormalities of effective connectivity of the sensorimotor network in 61 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with 74 age-matched healthy subjects. We also investigated the correlation of such abnormalities with findings derived from structural MRI. In a subgroup of(More)