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Here, we show that disruption of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein- (NSF-) GluR2 interaction by infusion into cultured hippocampal neurons of a blocking peptide (pep2m) caused a rapid decrease in the frequency but no change in the amplitude of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)(More)
Until recently, the impact of early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to be less significant than for later brain injuries, consistent with the notion that the young brain is more flexible and able to reorganize in the context of brain insult. This study aimed to evaluate this notion by comparing cognitive and behavioural outcomes for children(More)
Traditionally early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to have better outcome than later injury, consistent with the notion that the young brain is flexible and able to reorganize. Recent research findings question this view, suggesting that EBI might lead to poorer outcome than brain insult at any other age. Exploring this early vulnerability(More)
BACKGROUND A protective malaria vaccine will likely need to elicit both cell-mediated and antibody responses. As adenovirus vaccine vectors induce both these responses in humans, a Phase 1/2a clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an adenovirus serotype 5-vectored malaria vaccine against sporozoite challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
A general deterioration is occurring in the quality of life of rural Americans, and it is affecting the quality of health and mental health service delivery. About 24% of the U.S. population lives in nonmetropolitan areas where the citizens are older, less well educated, have lower incomes, and are more homogeneous in terms of race and ethnicity. Medicare(More)
OBJECTIVE Traditionally early brain insult (EBI) has been argued to have better outcome than later injury, consistent with the notion that the young brain is flexible and able to reorganize. This view was investigated by comparing neurobehavioral outcomes of children sustaining EBI at different developmental stages (gestation to late childhood). METHODS(More)
We previously demonstrated that protection induced by radiation-attenuated (gamma) Plasmodium berghei sporozoites is linked to MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells specific for exoerythrocytic-stage Ags, and that activated intrahepatic memory CD8(+) T cells are associated with protracted protection. In this study, we further investigated intrahepatic(More)
We examined the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a prime-boost vaccination regime involving two poxvirus malaria subunit vaccines, FP9-PP and MVA-PP, expressing the same polyprotein consisting of six pre-erythrocytic antigens from Plasmodium falciparum. Following safety assessment of single doses, 15 volunteers received a heterologous prime-boost(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously described a four antigen malaria vaccine consisting of DNA plasmids boosted by recombinant poxviruses which protects a high percentage of rhesus monkeys against Plasmodium knowlesi (Pk) malaria. This is a multi-stage vaccine that includes two pre-erythrocytic antigens, PkCSP and PkSSP2(TRAP), and two erythrocytic antigens,(More)
Multi-factorial immune mechanisms underlie protection induced with radiation-attenuated Plasmodia sporozoites (gamma-spz). Spz pass through Kupffer cells (KC) before invading hepatocytes but the involvement of KC in protection is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether gamma-spz-immune KC respond to infectious spz in a manner that is(More)