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The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination(More)
The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of(More)
It has recently been shown that nucleosome distribution, histone modifications and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy show preferential association with exons ("exon-intron marking"), linking chromatin structure and function to co-transcriptional splicing in a variety of eukaryotes. Previous ChIP-sequencing studies suggested that these marking patterns(More)
Double-stranded DNA copies of the RNA gene coding for the haemagglutinin glycoproteins from human H2 and H3 pandemic strains of influenza virus have been cloned. DNA sequence analysis provides the first reported complete nucleotide sequence of an H2 haemagglutinin gene and a partial sequence (45%) of the H3 gene. The H2 haemagglutinin gene consists of 1,773(More)
To study the importance of individual sulfhydryl residues during the folding and assembly in vivo of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), we have constructed and expressed a series of mutant HA proteins in which cysteines involved in three disulfide bonds have been substituted by serine residues. Investigations of the structure and intracellular transport of(More)
REVIEW ARTICLE Assembly and secretion of hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein RESEARCH PAPERS Proteins Neoantigens in complement component C3 as detected by mono-clonal antibodies. Mapping of the recognized epitopes by synthetic peptides Myelin basic protein is affected by reduced synthesis of myelin proteolipid protein in the jimpy mouse Botulinum type F(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the aetiological agent responsible for most cases of non-A non-B hepatitis. Hepatitis C is a disease of clinical importance because of its high infection rate in blood donors and its persistence as chronic infections which may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the long term. The variability of the HCV genome has(More)
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