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Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a cap-n-collar basic leucine zipper (CNC-bZIP) transcription factor that is well established as a master regulator of phase II detoxification and antioxidant gene expression and is strongly expressed in tissues involved in xenobiotic metabolism including liver and kidney. Nrf2 is also abundantly expressed in(More)
Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown(More)
Y2 receptors, particularly those in the brain, have been implicated in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated effects on energy homeostasis and bone mass. Recent evidence also indicates a role for Y2 receptors in peripheral tissues in this process by promoting adipose tissue accretion; however their effects on energy balance remain unclear. Here, we show that(More)
The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to(More)
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a key neuropeptide with predominant expression in the hypothalamus central to the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake and energy expenditure. While there is considerable information on CART's role in the control of feeding, little is known about its thermoregulatory(More)
Y-receptors control energy homeostasis, but the role of Npy6 receptors (Npy6r) is largely unknown. Young Npy6r-deficient (Npy6r(-/-)) mice have reduced body weight, lean mass, and adiposity, while older and high-fat-fed Npy6r(-/-) mice have low lean mass with increased adiposity. Npy6r(-/-) mice showed reduced hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the evidence regarding the use of ethanol lock therapy (ELT) for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) prophylaxis and treatment. DATA SOURCES A literature search was conducted using PubMed (August 2003-January 2013) with search terms: ethanol lock, ethanol locks, ethanol lock therapy, prophylaxis, prevention,(More)
OBJECTIVE Peptide YY (PYY3-36) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) potently inhibit food intake in rodents and humans, however, it is unclear whether they have any synergistic/additive interaction in decreasing food intake. DESIGN AND METHODS Fasted WT, Y2(-) (/) (-) , Y4(-) (/) (-) , or Y2Y4(-) (/) (-) mice were i.p. administrated with saline, PYY3-36,(More)
Insulin secretion is tightly controlled through coordinated actions of a number of systemic and local factors. Peptide YY (PYY) is expressed in α-cells of the islet, but its role in control of islet function such as insulin release is not clear. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse model (Pyy(tg/+)/Rip-Cre) overexpressing the Pyy gene under the(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and noradrenaline are commonly co-expressed in sympathetic neurons. Both are key regulators of energy homeostasis and critical for stress-coping. However, little is known about the specific function of NPY in the catecholaminergic system in these regulations. Here we show that mice with NPY expression only in the noradrenergic and(More)