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Major progress has been made during the past three decades in understanding the inflammatory process and pathogenetic mechanisms in multiple sclerosis (MS). Consequently, effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory treatments are now available for patients in the relapsing-remitting stage of the disease. This Review summarizes studies on the pathology(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of tightly bound endothelial cells (ECs) and perivascular astrocytes that regulate central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. We showed that astrocytes secrete Sonic hedgehog and that BBB ECs express Hedgehog (Hh) receptors, which together promote BBB formation and integrity during embryonic development and(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Mitochondrial alterations might occur as a response to demyelination and inflammation, since demyelination leads to an increased energy demand in axons and could thereby affect the number, distribution and activity of mitochondria. We have(More)
Perivascular accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes is a prominent feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. To enter the brain parenchyma, immune cells need to migrate across the blood-brain barrier through a number of well-defined processes. So far, little attention has been given to the role of the basement membrane (BM) in leukocyte recruitment(More)
To ensure efficient energy supply to the high demanding brain, nutrients are transported into brain cells via specific glucose (GLUT) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Mitochondrial dysfunction and altered glucose metabolism are thought to play an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here,(More)
In the central nervous system, basement membrane (BM) constituents are predominantly associated with the vasculature. However, under inflammatory conditions, the expression of BM components may alter. Here, we investigated the distribution of several BM components, including laminin, collagen type IV and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in various multiple(More)
Dysfunctional mitochondria are thought to play a cardinal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. In addition, neuroinflammation is a common denominator of these diseases. Both mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammatory processes lead to increased(More)
Reactive oxygen species contribute to the formation and persistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions by acting on distinct pathological processes. To counteract the detrimental effects of ROS the central nervous system is endowed with a protective mechanism consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Expression of most antioxidant enzymes is(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide(More)
Studies aimed to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and to find new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients heavily rely on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a suitable experimental model. This strategy has been highly successful for the inflammatory component of the disease, but had so far little success in the(More)