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Major progress has been made during the past three decades in understanding the inflammatory process and pathogenetic mechanisms in multiple sclerosis (MS). Consequently, effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory treatments are now available for patients in the relapsing-remitting stage of the disease. This Review summarizes studies on the pathology(More)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is frequently observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) in leptomeningeal and cortical brain vasculature. In 40% of AD cases, Aβ mainly accumulates in cortical capillaries, a phenomenon referred to as capillary CAA (capCAA). The aim of this study was to investigate(More)
Sphingolipids are a class of biologically active lipids that have a role in multiple biological processes including inflammation. Sphingolipids exert their functions by direct signaling or through signaling by their specific receptors. Phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720P) is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) analogue that is currently in trial for treatment of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Current treatments are very effective in reducing the neuroinflammatory attack, but fail to significantly halt disease progression and associated loss of neuronal tissue. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that dysfunctional mitochondria are(More)
Perivascular accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes is a prominent feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. To enter the brain parenchyma, immune cells need to migrate across the blood-brain barrier through a number of well-defined processes. So far, little attention has been given to the role of the basement membrane (BM) in leukocyte recruitment(More)
In the central nervous system, basement membrane (BM) constituents are predominantly associated with the vasculature. However, under inflammatory conditions, the expression of BM components may alter. Here, we investigated the distribution of several BM components, including laminin, collagen type IV and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in various multiple(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of tightly bound endothelial cells (ECs) and perivascular astrocytes that regulate central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. We showed that astrocytes secrete Sonic hedgehog and that BBB ECs express Hedgehog (Hh) receptors, which together promote BBB formation and integrity during embryonic development and(More)
Macrophages play a dual role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. They can exert neuroprotective and growth promoting effects but also contribute to tissue damage by production of inflammatory mediators. The effector function of macrophages is determined by the way they are activated. Stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro with interferon-γ(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Mitochondrial alterations might occur as a response to demyelination and inflammation, since demyelination leads to an increased energy demand in axons and could thereby affect the number, distribution and activity of mitochondria. We have(More)
Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in both the inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathological mechanisms in multiple sclerosis (MS). In response to oxidative stress, cells increase and activate their cellular antioxidant mechanisms. Glutathione (GSH) is the major antioxidant in the brain, and as such plays a pivotal role in the detoxification of(More)