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Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide(More)
Dysfunctional mitochondria are thought to play a cardinal role in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. In addition, neuroinflammation is a common denominator of these diseases. Both mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammatory processes lead to increased(More)
Cerebrovascular deposition of amyloid beta protein (A beta) is a characteristic lesion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of the Dutch type (HCHWA-D). Besides A beta, several other proteins and proteoglycans accumulate in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We have now analyzed the expression of the heparan(More)
There is growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation contribute to neurodegenerative processes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we investigated whether alterations in transcriptional regulators of key mitochondrial proteins underlie mitochondrial dysfunction in MS cortex and contribute to neuronal(More)
Activation of microglial cells and impaired mitochondrial function are common pathological characteristics of many neurological diseases and contribute to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is nowadays accepted that oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are key hallmarks of classical neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative(More)
The involvement of parkin, PINK1, and DJ1 in mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative injury, and impaired functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been intensively investigated in light of Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. However, these pathological mechanisms are not restricted to PD, but are common denominators of various(More)
Macrophages play a dual role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. They can exert neuroprotective and growth promoting effects but also contribute to tissue damage by production of inflammatory mediators. The effector function of macrophages is determined by the way they are activated. Stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro with interferon-γ(More)
The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator FTY720P (Gilenya®) potently reduces relapse rate and lesion activity in the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis. Although most of its efficacy has been shown to be related to immunosuppression through the induction of lymphopenia, it has been suggested that a number of its beneficial effects are(More)
In brain tissues from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, clusters of activated HLA-DR-expressing microglia, also referred to as preactive lesions, are located throughout the normal-appearing white matter. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the frequency, distribution and cellular architecture of preactive lesions using a large cohort of(More)
Parkin is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, parkin targets misfolded proteins for degradation and protects cells against various forms of cellular stress, including unfolded-protein and oxidative stress. This points towards a protective role of parkin in neurological disorders in which these stressors are implicated,(More)