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Real-time 52 Gbps PAM4 transmission is demonstrated over single mode fiber (SMF) using a directly modulated laser (DML) and a PHY chip. The inner eye optical modulation amplitude (OMA) receiver sensitivities were measured and compared using avalanche photodetector (APD) and PIN photodetector (PD) for the maximum and minimum chromatic dispersions (CDs) of(More)
We have developed a high-speed 1310-nm Al-MQW buried-hetero laser having 29-GHz bandwidth (BW). The laser was used to compare 28-Gbaud four-level pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM4) and 56-Gb/s nonreturn to zero (NRZ) transmission performance. In both cases, it was possible to meet the 10-km link budget, however, 56-Gb/s NRZ operation achieved a 2-dB better(More)
A highly diastereoselective protocol for the formal nucleophilic substitution of 2-bromocyclopropylcarboxamides with azoles is described. A wide range of azoles, including pyrroles, indoles, benzimidazoles, pyrazoles, and benzotriazoles, can be efficiently employed as pronucleophiles in this transformation, providing expeditious access to N-cyclopropyl(More)
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