Jack W. Scannell

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The number of different cortical structures in mammalian brains and the number of extrinsic fibres linking these regions are both large. As with any complex system, systematic analysis is required to draw reliable conclusions about the organization of the complex neural networks comprising these numerous elements. One aspect of organization that has long(More)
The mammalian cerebral cortex is innervated by a large number of corticocortical connections. The number of connections makes it difficult to understand the organization of the cortical network. Nonetheless, conclusions about the organization of cortical systems drawn from examining connectional data have often been made in a speculative and informal(More)
The absolute diversity of prokaryotes is widely held to be unknown and unknowable at any scale in any environment. However, it is not necessary to count every species in a community to estimate the number of different taxa therein. It is sufficient to estimate the area under the species abundance curve for that environment. Log-normal species abundance(More)
Data on connections between the areas of the cerebral cortex and nuclei of the thalamus are too complicated to analyse with naked intuition. Indeed, the complexity of connection data is one of the major challenges facing neuroanatomy. Recently, systematic methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the connectivity in the cerebral cortex.(More)
This computational neuroanatomy study evaluates how well some formalisms derived from combinatorial network optimization theory fit as models for brain structure. At multiple hierarchical levels--brain, ganglion, individual cell--physical placement of neural components appears consistent with a single, simple goal: minimize cost of connections among the(More)
BACKGROUND The mammalian brain consists of the cerebral cortical sheet, which is composed of many distinct areas, the cerebellar cortex, and many non-cortical nuclei. Powerful neuroanatomical techniques have revealed a large number of connections between these structures. The large number of brain structures and the very many connections between them form a(More)
1. Neurons that are selectively sensitive to the direction of motion of elongated contours have been found in several cortical areas in many species. However, in the striate cortex of the cat and monkey, and the extrastriate posteromedial lateral suprasylvian visual area of the cat, such cells are generally component motion selective, signaling only the(More)
The mammalian cerebral cortex is composed of many distinct areas, which are very richly interconnected. The very large number of connections between cortical areas require analysis to be undertaken before reliable conclusions about the organization of neural systems in the cortex can be drawn. We review the methodology and results of two means of analysing(More)
Neuroanatomists have established that the various gross structures of the brain are divided into a large number of different processing regions and have catalogued a large number of connections between these regions. The connectional data derived from neuroanatomical studies are complex, and reliable conclusions about the organization of brain systems(More)
The past 60 years have seen huge advances in many of the scientific, technological and managerial factors that should tend to raise the efficiency of commercial drug research and development (RD). Yet the number of new drugs approved per billion US dollars spent on RD has halved roughly every 9 years since 1950, falling around 80-fold in inflation-adjusted(More)