Jack T. Stern

Learn More
The postcranial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia, and the footprints from the Laetoli Beds of northern Tanzania, are analyzed with the goal of determining (1) the extent to which this ancient hominid practiced forms of locomotion other than terrestrial bipedality, and (2) whether or not the terrestrial bipedalism of(More)
Numerous studies of the locomotor skeleton of the Hadar hominids have revealed traits indicative of both arboreal climbing/suspension and terrestrial bipedalism. These earliest known hominids must have devoted part of their activities to feeding, sleeping and/or predator avoidance in trees, while also spending time on the ground where they moved bipedally.(More)
The strain environment of the tibial midshaft of two female macaques was evaluated through in vivo bone strain experiments using three rosette gauges around the circumference of the bones. Strains were collected for a total of 123 walking and galloping steps as well as several climbing cycles. Principal strains and the angle of the maximum (tensile)(More)
Musculoskeletal models have become important tools for studying a range of muscle-driven movements. However, most work has been in modern humans, with few applications in other species. Chimpanzees are facultative bipeds and our closest living relatives, and have provided numerous important insights into our own evolution. A chimpanzee musculoskeletal model(More)
Olduvai hominid (O.H.) fossils 7, 8, and 35 represent the earliest species of the genus Homo dated at 1.76 million years. The O.H. 7 hand, jaw, and skull and the O.H. 8 foot come from one subadult individual, and the O.H. 35 leg are also those of Homo habilis. The skeleton represents a mosaic of primitive and derived features, indicating an early hominid(More)
The importance of arm-raising has been a major consideration in the functional interpretation of differences in shoulder morphology among species of nonhuman primates. Among the characters that have been associated with enhancement of the arm-raising mechanism in hominoid primates are the relative enlargement of cranial trapezius and caudal serratus(More)
Theories about the functions of the foot muscles have centered on their role in arch support. Previous anatomical and electromyographic studies (reviewed herein) have demonstrated that the arches are normally maintained by bones and ligaments. This study reports an electromyographic investigation of five foot muscles (flexor digitorum longus, flexor(More)
Current views on the function of the deltoid and rotator cuff muscles emphasize their roles in arm-raising as participants in a scapulohumeral force "couple." The acceptance of such a mechanism is based primarily on a 1944 EMG study of human shoulder muscle action. More recently, it has been suggested that shoulder joint stabilization constitutes a second(More)
Using telemetered electromyography and immunocytochemical fibre typing (of both fresh frozen and preserved specimens), the present paper demonstrates clearly that at the elbow, knee, and ankle joints, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is endowed with one extensor-muscle head specialized for posture. These postural heads are distinguished by (a) recruitment(More)