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The postcranial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia, and the footprints from the Laetoli Beds of northern Tanzania, are analyzed with the goal of determining (1) the extent to which this ancient hominid practiced forms of locomotion other than terrestrial bipedality, and (2) whether or not the terrestrial bipedalism of(More)
Numerous studies of the locomotor skeleton of the Hadar hominids have revealed traits indicative of both arboreal climbing/suspension and terrestrial bipedalism. These earliest known hominids must have devoted part of their activities to feeding, sleeping and/or predator avoidance in trees, while also spending time on the ground where they moved bipedally.(More)
The strain environment of the tibial midshaft of two female macaques was evaluated through in vivo bone strain experiments using three rosette gauges around the circumference of the bones. Strains were collected for a total of 123 walking and galloping steps as well as several climbing cycles. Principal strains and the angle of the maximum (tensile)(More)
Olduvai hominid (O.H.) fossils 7, 8, and 35 represent the earliest species of the genus Homo dated at 1.76 million years. The O.H. 7 hand, jaw, and skull and the O.H. 8 foot come from one subadult individual, and the O.H. 35 leg are also those of Homo habilis. The skeleton represents a mosaic of primitive and derived features, indicating an early hominid(More)
In vivo bone strain experiments were performed on the ulnae of three female rhesus macaques to test how the bone deforms during locomotion. The null hypothesis was that, in an animal moving its limbs predominantly in sagittal planes, the ulna experiences anteroposterior bending. Three rosette strain gauges were attached around the circumference of the bone(More)
Electromyographic studies of brachiation in the gibbon controvert deductions, based on dissection, about the purported functions of muscle chains in the hylobatid forelimb. Neither force conduction distally along the components of the chains nor simultaneity of muscular contraction occurs in brachiation. Rather, the unique structure of the forelimb is(More)
Theories about the functions of the foot muscles have centered on their role in arch support. Previous anatomical and electromyographic studies (reviewed herein) have demonstrated that the arches are normally maintained by bones and ligaments. This study reports an electromyographic investigation of five foot muscles (flexor digitorum longus, flexor(More)
Among primates there is striking variation in the extent of the origin of pectoralis major from the clavicle. A significant clavicular attachment (pars clavicularis) occurs only in Alouatta, Lagothrix, Hylobates, Pan (troglodytes, paniscus and gorilla), and Homo. Interpreting this trait in nonhuman primates as an adaptation to frequent use of a mobile(More)
It has been generally assumed and theoretically argued that the curvature of finger and toe bones seen in some nonhuman primates is associated with cheiridial use in an arboreal setting. Assessment of such curvature in fossil primates has been used to infer the positional behavior of these animals. Several methods of quantifying curvature of bones have been(More)