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We have used a retroviral vector that codes for the bacterial enzyme beta-galactosidase to study cell lineage in the rat cerebral cortex. This vector has been used to label progenitor cells in the cerebral cortices of rat embryos during the period of neurogenesis. When these embryos are allowed to develop to adulthood, the clones of cells derived from the(More)
Mutations in the gene for the transcription factor, Pax6, induce marked developmental abnormalities in the CNS and the eye, but the cellular mechanisms that underlie the phenotype are unknown. We have examined the adhesive properties of cells from the developing forebrain in Small eye, the Pax6 mutant mouse. We have found that the segregation normally(More)
We have used a recombinant retrovirus carrying the lacZ gene to study the developmental potential of precursor cells from the embryonic rat cerebral cortex in dissociated cell culture. Virus was used to label a small number of cultured cells genetically so that their fate could be determined. Infected clones were detected with an anti-beta-galactosidase(More)
To gain insights into transcription factors defining neuronal identity, we generated transgenic mice carrying a 1.8 kb rat neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter fragment fused to an E. coli lacZ gene. Four of seven transgenic families expressed transgene RNA in the nervous system but not in most other tissues. Histochemical analysis of adult brain from the(More)
Cell lineage studies of the rat cerebral cortex suggest that by midneurogenesis, most precursor cells of the ventricular zone are specified to produce a single cell type. Yet there is also evidence for multipotential precursor cells. We used a retroviral vector to follow the developmental potential of cortical precursor cells by labeling cortical cells in(More)
Antidepressants increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis in animal models, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used human hippocampal progenitor cells to investigate the molecular pathways involved in the antidepressant-induced modulation of neurogenesis. Because our previous studies have shown that antidepressants regulate(More)
We have labelled precursor cells in the embryonic rat cerebral cortex using BAG, a retroviral vector that expresses beta-galactosidase. We had previously reported that labelled precursor cells generate clusters of labelled cells that could be classified into four types by their morphological appearance and anatomical distribution (Price and Thurlow, 1988).(More)
Neural induction is the first step in the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system. The emerging consensus of the mechanisms underlying neural induction is the combined influences from inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and activating fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/Erk signaling, which act extrinsically via either autocrine or(More)
Pituitary gland development serves as an excellent model system in which to study the emergence of distinct cell types from a common primordium in mammalian organogenesis. We have investigated the role of the morphogen Sonic hedgehog (SHH) in outgrowth and differentiation of the pituitary gland using loss- and gain-of-function studies in transgenic mice.(More)
Increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. Here, we show for the first time how IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine shown to be increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. IL-1β was detrimental to neurogenesis, as shown by a decrease in(More)