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Although there are many algorithms available in the literature aimed at segmentation and model reconstruction of 3D angiographic images, many are focused on characterizing only a part of the vascular network. This study is motivated by the recent emerging prospects of whole-organ simulations in coronary hemodynamics, autoregulation and tissue oxygen(More)
The force produced by muscles declines during prolonged activity and this decline arises largely from processes within the muscle. At a cellular level the reduced force could be caused by: (a) reduced intracellular calcium release during activity; (b) reduced sensitivity of the myofilaments to calcium; or (c) reduced maximal force development. Experiments(More)
We present a method to efficiently simulate coronary perfusion in subject-specific models of the heart within clinically relevant time frames. Perfusion is modelled as a Darcy porous-media flow, where the permeability tensor is derived from homogenization of an explicit anatomical representation of the vasculature. To account for the disparity in length(More)
Cubic Hermite meshes provide an efficient representation of anatomy, and are useful for simulating soft tissue mechanics. However, their personalization can be a complex, time consuming and labour-intensive process. This paper presents a method based on image registration and using an existing template for deriving a patient-specific cubic Hermite mesh. Its(More)
Experimental data and advanced imaging techniques are increasingly enabling the extraction of detailed vascular anatomy from biological tissues. Incorporation of anatomical data within perfusion models is non-trivial, due to heterogeneous vessel density and disparate radii scales. Furthermore, previous idealised networks have assumed a spatially repeating(More)
Prolonged activation of skeletal muscle leads to a decline of force production known as fatigue. In this review we outline the ionic and metabolic changes that occur in muscle during prolonged activity and focus on how these changes might lead to reduced force. We discuss two distinct types of fatigue: fatigue due to continuous high-frequency stimulation(More)
1. Single muscle fibres were dissected from Xenopus lumbrical muscles and microinjected with the photoprotein aequorin in order to measure the myoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Fatigue was produced by repeated intermittent tetanic stimulation continued until tension had declined to approximately 50% of the initial level. Fibres were then(More)
There is a need for, and utility in, the acquisition of data sets of cardiac histoanatomy, with the vision of reconstructing individual hearts on the basis of noninvasive imaging, such as MRI, enriched by reference to detailed atlases of serial histology obtained from representative samples. These data sets would be useful not only as a repository of(More)
1. Single muscle fibres were dissected from the toe muscles of Xenopus laevis and microinjected with Fura-2 to measure myoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Injected fibres were illuminated at 340 and 380 nm and the ratio of the resulting fluorescence at 505 nm (the Fura-2 ratio) was taken as a measure of [Ca2+]i. Fibres were fatigued at 21 degrees C(More)
In this study, we review the development and application of multi-physics and multi-scale coupling in the construction of whole-heart physiological models. Through an examination of recent computational modelling developments, we analyse the significance of coupling mechanisms for the increased understanding of cardiac function in the areas of(More)