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Mechanical ventilation practice has changed over the past few decades, with tidal volumes (VT) decreasing significantly, especially in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Patients without acute lung injury are still ventilated with large--and perhaps too large--VT. Studies of ventilator-associated lung injury in subjects without ALI demonstrate(More)
Sepsis is a multifactorial, and often fatal, disorder typically characterized by widespread inflammation and immune activation with resultant endothelial activation. In the present study, we postulated that the adipokine adiponectin serves as a critical modulator of survival and endothelial activation in sepsis. To this aim, we evaluated both(More)
Ventilator-induced lung injury is mediated, at least in part, by TNF-alpha. We determined the effect of a recombinant human soluble TNF receptor fusion protein (etanercept) on mechanical ventilation (MV)-induced changes in a murine ventilator-induced lung injury model. After pretreatment with etanercept or placebo, C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized and(More)
RATIONALE Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) contributes to the mortality in patients with acute lung injury by increasing inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that stimulation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway may be an attractive way to attenuate inflammatory injury. OBJECTIVES To determine the role of vagus nerve signaling in VILI and(More)
OBJECTIVES To review the involvement of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary infection, and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). DATA SOURCE Published articles on experimental and clinical studies of coagulation and fibrinolysis in ALI/ARDS, pneumonia, and(More)
BACKGROUND Mechanical ventilation can induce organ injury associated with overwhelming inflammatory responses. Excessive activation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase enzyme after massive DNA damage may aggravate inflammatory responses. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that the pharmacologic inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose)(More)
Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) systemic administration reduces sepsis-associated inflammation, organ injury, and mortality in clinically relevant models of polymicrobial sepsis, the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating beneficial effects are controversial. This study identifies the molecular mechanisms of MSC-conferred(More)
Besides being one of the mechanisms responsible for ventilator-induced lung injury, atelectasis also seems to aggravate the course of experimental pneumonia. In this study, we examined the effect of reducing the degree of atelectasis by natural modified surfactant and/or open lung ventilation on bacterial growth and translocation in a piglet model of Group(More)
OBJECTIVE Long pentraxin PTX3 is an inflammatory mediator and a component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PTX3 expression is increased in animals with acute lung injury (ALI) and in patients with sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome and is considered to be a potential biomarker for these diseases. However, the role of PTX3 in the(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous studies failed to show clear benefits of high-frequency ventilation compared with conventional positive pressure ventilation (PPV(CON)) in experimental meconium aspiration syndrome. However, none of these studies applied an open lung ventilation strategy (OLC), which aims to reduce intrapulmonary shunt due to alveolar collapse. We(More)