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Plants often release a blend of volatile organic compounds in response to damage by herbivorous insects that may serve as cues to locate those herbivores by natural enemies. The blend of compounds emitted by plants may be more variable than is generally assumed. The quantity and the composition of the blends may vary with the species of the herbivore, the(More)
The suitability of the Bradford protein assay for measuring plant protein was evaluated and a standard method developed. The assay involves extraction of dried, fresh, or frozen plant material in 0.1 NaOH for 30 min. Replicate 100-μl aliquots of centrifuged supernatant are assayed with 5 ml Bio-Rad Bradford dye reagent (Coomassie brilliant blue G-250)(More)
Models regarding the evolution of plant resistance to herbivory often assume that the primary mechanism maintaining resistance polymorphisms is the balance between benefits of increased resistance to herbivores and costs associated with the production of a resistance character. However, rarely has it been demonstrated that genetically based resistance(More)
We have observed that very high-Q Mie resonances in silica microspheres are split into doublets. This splitting is attributed to internal backscattering that couples the two degenerate whispering-gallery modes propagating in opposite directions along the sphere equator. We have studied this doublet structure by high-resolution spectroscopy. Time-decay(More)
The costs and benefits of defensive traits in plants can have an ecological component that arises from the effect of defenses on the natural enemies of herbivores. We tested if glandular trichomes in Datura wrightii, a trait that confers resistance to several species of herbivorous insects, impose an ecological cost by decreasing rates of predation by the(More)
Natural enemies of herbivorous insects utilize numerous chemical cues to locate and identify their prey. Among these, volatile plant compounds produced after attack by herbivores may play a significant role (hereafter herbivore-induced plant volatiles or HIPVs). One unresolved question is whether the composition of the volatile cue blends induced by(More)
Herbivores may induce plants to produce an array of volatile organic compounds (herbivore-induced plant volatiles, or HIPVs) after damage, and some natural enemies of herbivores are attracted by those HIPVs. The production of HIPVs by the undomesticated species Datura wrightii was quantified in response to damage by its natural community of herbivores or(More)
Natural enemies of herbivorous insects utilize numerous cues to locate and identify their prey. One class of such cues is volatile organic compounds (VOCs) often produced by plants after attack by herbivores (hereafter herbivore-induced plant volatiles or HIPVs). Under simplified laboratory conditions, natural enemies often make clear choices between(More)
The relationship between the reproductive success of two Japanese scale insects, Fiorinia externa Ferris and Nuculaspis tsugae (Marlatt) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and the concentrations of 15 terpenoids in needles of Tsuga sieboldii, the Japanese host, and T. canadensis, the North American host, was investigated during 1981 and 1982 in a field plot of(More)