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BACKGROUND Argonaute (AGO) proteins bind to small-interfering (si)RNAs and micro (mi)RNAs to target RNA silencing against viruses, transgenes and in regulation of mRNAs. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins but, in Arabidopsis, only AGO1 is known to have an antiviral role. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To uncover the roles of specific AGOs in limiting(More)
The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein not only inhibits anti-viral RNA silencing but also quenches transcriptional responses of plant genes to jasmonic acid, a key signalling molecule in defence against insects. This suggested that it might affect interactions between infected plants and aphids, insects that transmit CMV. We found that infection of(More)
BACKGROUND RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) function in anti-viral silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. Salicylic acid (SA), an important defensive signal, increases RDR1 gene expression, suggesting that RDR1 contributes to SA-induced virus resistance. In Nicotiana attenuata RDR1 also regulates plant-insect interactions and is induced by(More)
The ability of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody, LICR-LON-M8 (M8), to locate metastatic breast carcinomas has been investigated. The scans generated by M8, either when labelled with radioiodine, or when conjugated with diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and labelled with radioactive indium (111In), have been compared with X-rays and 99mTc-methyl(More)
The Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA) has until now only been described in immunological terms and has been shown immunohistochemically to be present on a variety of human non-squamous epithelial surfaces. It is a valuable marker in diagnostic tumour pathology and enables the detection of small deposits of malignant cells in organs such as liver and bone(More)
BACKGROUND Virus-induced deterrence to aphid feeding is believed to promote plant virus transmission by encouraging migration of virus-bearing insects away from infected plants. We investigated the effects of infection by an aphid-transmitted virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), on the interaction of Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the natural hosts for CMV,(More)
Affinity-purified antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) have been injected into immune-suppressed mice bearing xenografts of human breast tumours. It has been shown that the antibodies localized in the tumours but not in normal tissues. The degree of tumour localization correlates with the amount of tumour CEA, and is unaffected by levels of(More)
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to contain no free cysteine thiol groups but 6 cystine disulphide bonds. 5'5-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) will react with CEA only after reduction of the disulphide bonds with dithioerythritol. Reduction-alkylation of CEA using dithioerythritol and bromo-[1-14C] acetic acid confirmed the presence of 6(More)
The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) inhibits host responses to jasmonic acid (JA), a chemical signal regulating resistance to insects. Previous experiments with a CMV subgroup IA strain and its 2b gene deletion mutant suggested that VSRs might neutralize aphid (Myzus persicae) resistance by inhibiting JA-regulated gene(More)
Glycoprotein extracts from colonic tumours were tested for blood-group precursor-like activities using human anti-I and anti-i cold agglutinins as reagents. Substantial activity was detected in the high-molecular-weight fractions of two metastatic tumours. A carcinoembryonic antigen (C.E.A.) fraction from one of these tumours was also active. The C.E.A. and(More)