Learn More
We have examined in detail the RNA coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in methotrexate-resistant mouse cells. We find four distinct DHFR messengers, ranging in size from 750 to 1600 nucleotides. All four are polyadenylated and polysomal and can be translated in vitro to produce a 21,000 dalton protein co-migrating with purified dihydrofolate reductase(More)
Current recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 protein vaccine candidates are unable to elicit antibodies capable of neutralizing infectivity of primary isolates from patients. Here, "fusion-competent" HIV vaccine immunogens were generated that capture the transient envelope-CD4-coreceptor structures that arise during HIV binding and fusion.(More)
At least five arenaviruses cause viral haemorrhagic fevers in humans. Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus, uses the cellular receptor alpha-dystroglycan to infect cells. Machupo, Guanarito, Junin and Sabia viruses are New World haemorrhagic fever viruses that do not use alpha-dystroglycan. Here we show a specific, high-affinity association between(More)
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the late-stage clinical manifestation of long-term persistent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Immune responses directed against the virus and against virus-infected cells during the persistent infection fail to mediate resolution of the infection. As a result, a successful AIDS(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains two membrane-associated envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, which assemble as a heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, predictive algorithms and genetic analyses of deletion mutants and glycosylation site variants of the E1 glycoprotein were used to suggest that the glycoprotein can adopt two topologies(More)
The construction and analysis of bacterial plasmids that contain and phenotypically express a mammalian genetic sequence are described. Such plasmids specify a protein that has enzymatic properties, immunological reactivity and molecular size characteristic of the mouse dihydrofolate reductase, and render host cells resistant to the antimetabolic drug(More)
A methotrexate (MTX)-resistant murine lymphoblastoid cell line has been obtained by serial passage in increasing concentrations of MTX which is greater than 100,000-fold resistant to MTX (L5178YR) and has dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) levels 300-fold higher than the parental line. The L5178YR cell line synthesizes approximately 10-11% of its total soluble(More)
Enveloped viruses utilize the membranous compartments of the host cell for the assembly and budding of new virion particles. In this report, we have investigated the biogenesis and trafficking of the envelope glycoprotein (GP-C) of the Junín arenavirus. The mature GP-C complex is unusual in that it retains a stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential(More)
A number of New World arenaviruses (Junín [JUNV], Machupo [MACV], and Guanarito [GTOV] viruses) can cause human disease ranging from mild febrile illness to a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever syndrome. These highly pathogenic viruses and the Old World Lassa fever virus pose a significant threat to public health and national security. The only(More)
The envelope glycoprotein of the Junín arenavirus (GP-C) mediates entry into target cells through a pH-dependent membrane fusion mechanism. Unlike other class I viral fusion proteins, the mature GP-C complex retains a cleaved, 58-amino-acid signal peptide (SSP) as an essential subunit, required both for trafficking of GP-C to the cell surface and for the(More)