Jack H. Nunberg

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Current recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 protein vaccine candidates are unable to elicit antibodies capable of neutralizing infectivity of primary isolates from patients. Here, "fusion-competent" HIV vaccine immunogens were generated that capture the transient envelope-CD4-coreceptor structures that arise during HIV binding and fusion.(More)
At least five arenaviruses cause viral haemorrhagic fevers in humans. Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus, uses the cellular receptor alpha-dystroglycan to infect cells. Machupo, Guanarito, Junin and Sabia viruses are New World haemorrhagic fever viruses that do not use alpha-dystroglycan. Here we show a specific, high-affinity association between(More)
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the late-stage clinical manifestation of long-term persistent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Immune responses directed against the virus and against virus-infected cells during the persistent infection fail to mediate resolution of the infection. As a result, a successful AIDS(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains two membrane-associated envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, which assemble as a heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, predictive algorithms and genetic analyses of deletion mutants and glycosylation site variants of the E1 glycoprotein were used to suggest that the glycoprotein can adopt two topologies(More)
The construction and analysis of bacterial plasmids that contain and phenotypically express a mammalian genetic sequence are described. Such plasmids specify a protein that has enzymatic properties, immunological reactivity and molecular size characteristic of the mouse dihydrofolate reductase, and render host cells resistant to the antimetabolic drug(More)
We have examined in detail the RNA coding for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in methotrexate-resistant mouse cells. We find four distinct DHFR messengers, ranging in size from 750 to 1600 nucleotides. All four are polyadenylated and polysomal and can be translated in vitro to produce a 21,000 dalton protein co-migrating with purified dihydrofolate reductase(More)
A methotrexate (MTX)-resistant murine lymphoblastoid cell line has been obtained by serial passage in increasing concentrations of MTX which is greater than 100,000-fold resistant to MTX (L5178YR) and has dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) levels 300-fold higher than the parental line. The L5178YR cell line synthesizes approximately 10-11% of its total soluble(More)
The genomic organization of the mouse dihydrofolate reductase gene has been determined by hybridization of specific cDNA sequences to restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of DNA from methotrexate-resistant S-180 cells. The dihydrofolate reductase gene contains a minimum of five intervening sequences (one in the 5' untranslated region and four in the(More)
The membrane-anchored proteins of enveloped viruses form labile spikes on the virion surface, primed to undergo large-scale conformational changes culminating in virus-cell membrane fusion and viral entry. The prefusion form of these envelope glycoproteins thus represents an important molecular target for antiviral intervention. A critical roadblock to this(More)