Jack E. Henningfield

Learn More
We examined differences between arterial and venous concentrations of nicotine in human subjects. Shortly after smoking a cigarette, levels of nicotine in arterial plasma were more than double those in venous plasma. The time course of the rise in arterial nicotine levels and the magnitude of the arteriovenous difference varied considerably among subjects.(More)
Nicotine influences cognition and behavior, but the mechanisms by which these effects occur are unclear. By using positron emission tomography, we measured cognitive activation (increases in relative regional cerebral blood flow) during a working memory task [2-back task (2BT)] in 11 abstinent smokers and 11 ex-smokers. Assays were performed both after(More)
On February 25, 1994, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a letter to the Coalition on Smoking or Health announcing its intention to consider regulating cigarettes. The agency's premises were that the vast majority of tobacco users self-administer the product for the drug effects of nicotine and to sustain addiction and that cigarette(More)
delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of marijuana, is rapidly transferred from lungs to blood during smoking. Oxidative metabolism of THC yields the active metabolite, 11-hydroxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and the inactive metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). Characterization(More)
Two versions of a 45-item questionnaire on cocaine craving were administered to 225 cocaine users. The Now version asked about current craving for cocaine, and the General version asked about average craving over the preceding week. Factor analyses showed that a four-factor solution best described the item structure for both versions of the questionnaire.(More)
Although numerous studies have documented that nicotine can function as an effective reinforcer of intravenous self-administration behavior in animals, it has not been clearly shown to maintain intravenous self-administration behavior above vehicle placebo levels in humans. To compare the reinforcing effectiveness of nicotine versus saline placebo in human(More)
It is well established that nicotine meets all criteria of a highly addictive drug. However, as recognized by the U.S. surgeon general, the nicotine delivery system itself is an important determinant of the toxic and addictive effects engendered by nicotine use. Therefore, altering the form of nicotine dosing may allow for selective therapeutic action in(More)
Human volunteers who smoked cigarettes were given the opportunity to press a lever that resulted in intravenous injections of saline or nicotine. Nicotine injections were taken in orderly patterns that were related to unit dose, whereas patterns of saline injections varied widely. Furthermore, the volunteers reported that nicotine produced subjective(More)
Sixteen human volunteers with little or no experience using tobacco participated in one 4.5-h experimental session in which they were administered three doses of nicotine polacrilex gum (0, 2 and 4 mg) in ascending order at 90-min intervals. Physiological, subjective, and cognitive performance measures were assessed before and after each dose. Nicotine(More)
Results are summarized from a series of studies in which procedures used to assess the reinforcing and aversive properties of drugs in animals, were extended to a human paradigm. Human volunteers were tested using drug self-administration and avoidance procedures, whereby pressing a lever under a fixed-ratio schedule resulted either in the IV injection of(More)