Jack E. Baldwin

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Penicillin antibiotics are all produced from fermentation-derived penicillins because their chemical synthesis is not commercially viable. The key step in penicillin biosynthesis, in which both the beta-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the nucleus are created, is mediated by isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), which binds ferrous iron and uses dioxygen as a(More)
The biosynthesis of penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics in microorganisms requires the formation of the bicyclic nucleus of penicillin. Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-haem iron-dependent oxidase, catalyses the reaction of a tripeptide, delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV), and dioxygen to form isopenicillin N and two water(More)
Clavaminate synthase (CAS), a remarkable Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate oxygenase, catalyzes three separate oxidative reactions in the biosynthesis of clavulanic acid, a clinically used inhibitor of serine beta-lactamases. The first CAS-catalyzed step (hydroxylation) is separated from the latter two (oxidative cyclization/desaturation) by the action of an(More)
The function of the citric acid cycle is to convert efficiently the energy released during the combustion of acetate into the energy stored in the pyrophosphate bonds of ATP. The cycle is almost twice as efficient as feasible alternatives of acetate combustion, such as a direct pathway via glycollate, glyoxylate, formaldehyde and formate. The reason is that(More)
Taurine/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase (TauD), a non-heme Fe(II) oxygenase, catalyses the conversion of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) to sulfite and aminoacetaldehyde concurrent with the conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) to succinate and CO(2). The enzyme allows Escherichia coli to use taurine, widely available in the environment, as an(More)
The Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) from Streptomyces clavuligerus was expressed at ca 25 % of total soluble protein in Escherichia coli and purified by an efficient large-scale procedure. Purified protein catalysed the conversions of penicillins N and G to deacetoxycephems. Gel filtration and light(More)
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of the plant signaling molecule ethylene. It is a member of the ferrous iron dependent family of oxidases and dioxygenases and is unusual in that it displays a very short half-life under catalytic conditions, typically less than 20 min, and a requirement for CO2 as(More)
A study of the final stages of the biosynthesis of the penicillins in Penicillium chrysogenum has revealed two types of enzyme. One hydrolyses phenoxymethyl penicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA). The other, also obtained from Aspergillus nidulans, transfers a phenylacetyl group from phenylacetyl CoA to 6-APA. The acyltransferase, purified to(More)
Deacetoxycephalosporin C synthetase (expandase) from Cephalosporium acremonium (Acremonium chrysogenum) was purified to near homogeneity as judged by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme (Mr about 40,000) exhibited a pH optimum around 7.5. It required 2-oxoglutarate (Km 0.04 mM), Fe2+ and O2 as cofactors, and ascorbate and dithiothreitol were(More)