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AIMS There is a rapid increase in the use of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its structural congeners/analogs globally. MDMA and MDMA-analogs have been synthesized illegally in furtive dwellings and are abused due to its addictive potential. Furthermore, MDMA and MDMA-analogs have shown to have induced several adverse effects. Hence, understanding(More)
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of d-amphetamine and the designer drugs 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-3-butamine (HMDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-butanamine (BDB), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-1-ethanamine (MDM1EA) in the chick embryo and the young chicken. HMDMA and MDM1EA had no effect on(More)
The effects of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (Nexus), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-butanamine (BDB), and cathinone were studied in the newly hatched chicken and compared to the effects of d-amphetamine and three hallucinogens in the same species. Cathinone, a psychomotor stimulant in man (6), produced effects that(More)
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-butanamine (BDB), N-methyl BDB (MBDB), and N,N-dimethyl BDB (MMBDB) in the newly hatched chicken. The primary amine, BDB, produced effects that are commonly seen in the chicken after administration of both hallucinogens and psychomotor stimulants (i.e.,(More)
Three regioisomeric 3,4-methylenedioxyphenethylamines having the same molecular weight and major mass spectral fragments of equal mass have been reported as drugs of abuse in forensic studies in recent years. These compounds are 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDMMA), and(More)
Designer drugs are synthetic structural analogues/congeners of controlled substances with slightly modified chemical structures intended to mimic the pharmacological effects of known drugs of abuse so as to evade drug classification. Benzylpiperazine (BZP), a piperazine derivative, elevates synaptic dopamine and serotonin levels producing stimulatory and(More)