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Mammalian telomeres contain a duplex array of telomeric repeats bound to the telomeric repeat-binding factors TRF1 and TRF2. Inhibition of TRF2 results in immediate deprotection of chromosome ends, manifested by loss of the telomeric 3' overhang, activation of p53, and end-to-end chromosome fusions. Electron microscopy reported here demonstrated that TRF2(More)
The licensing of eukaryotic DNA replication origins, which ensures once-per-cell-cycle replication, involves the loading of six related minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7) into prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs). Mcm2-7 forms the core of the replicative DNA helicase, which is inactive in the pre-RC. The loading of Mcm2-7 onto DNA requires the(More)
Lamellipodia are sheet-like, leading edge protrusions in firmly adherent cells that contain Arp2/3-generated dendritic actin networks. Although lamellipodia are widely believed to be critical for directional cell motility, this notion has not been rigorously tested. Using fibroblasts derived from Ink4a/Arf-deficient mice, we generated a stable line depleted(More)
DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are toxic DNA lesions whose repair occurs in the S phase of metazoans via an unknown mechanism. Here, we describe a cell-free system based on Xenopus egg extracts that supports ICL repair. During DNA replication of a plasmid containing a site-specific ICL, two replication forks converge on the crosslink. Subsequent lesion(More)
Mammalian telomeres contain a duplex TTAGGG-repeat tract terminating in a 3' single-stranded overhang. TRF2 protein has been implicated in remodeling telomeres into duplex lariats, termed t-loops, in vitro and t-loops have been isolated from cells in vivo. To examine the features of the telomeric DNA essential for TRF2-promoted looping, model templates(More)
TRF1 is a key player in telomere length regulation. Because length control was proposed to depend on the architecture of telomeres, we studied how TRF1 binds telomeric TTAGGG repeat DNA and alters its conformation. Although the single Myb-type helix-turn-helix motif of a TRF1 monomer can interact with telomeric DNA, TRF1 predominantly binds as a homodimer.(More)
Holliday junction (HJ) resolution is essential for chromosome segregation at meiosis and the repair of stalled/collapsed replication forks in mitotic cells. All organisms possess nucleases that promote HJ resolution by the introduction of symmetrically related nicks in two strands at, or close to, the junction point. GEN1, a member of the Rad2/XPG nuclease(More)
The human DNA damage sensors, Rad17-replication factor C (Rad17-RFC) and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint complex, are thought to be involved in the early steps of the DNA damage checkpoint response. Rad17-RFC and the 9-1-1 complex have been shown to be structurally similar to the replication factors, RFC clamp loader and proliferating cell nuclear(More)
Single-strand extensions of the G strand of telomeres are known to be critical for chromosome-end protection and length regulation. Here, we report that in C. elegans, chromosome termini possess 3' G-strand overhangs as well as 5' C-strand overhangs. C tails are as abundant as G tails and are generated by a well-regulated process. These two classes of(More)
Interaction of Escherichia coli MutS and MutL with heteroduplex DNA has been visualized by electron microscopy. In a reaction dependent on ATP hydrolysis, complexes between a MutS dimer and a DNA heteroduplex are converted to protein-stabilized, alpha-shaped loop structures with the mismatch in most cases located within the DNA loop. Loop formation depends(More)