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Mammalian telomeres contain a duplex array of telomeric repeats bound to the telomeric repeat-binding factors TRF1 and TRF2. Inhibition of TRF2 results in immediate deprotection of chromosome ends, manifested by loss of the telomeric 3' overhang, activation of p53, and end-to-end chromosome fusions. Electron microscopy reported here demonstrated that TRF2(More)
The licensing of eukaryotic DNA replication origins, which ensures once-per-cell-cycle replication, involves the loading of six related minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7) into prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs). Mcm2-7 forms the core of the replicative DNA helicase, which is inactive in the pre-RC. The loading of Mcm2-7 onto DNA requires the(More)
DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are toxic DNA lesions whose repair occurs in the S phase of metazoans via an unknown mechanism. Here, we describe a cell-free system based on Xenopus egg extracts that supports ICL repair. During DNA replication of a plasmid containing a site-specific ICL, two replication forks converge on the crosslink. Subsequent lesion(More)
Single-strand extensions of the G strand of telomeres are known to be critical for chromosome-end protection and length regulation. Here, we report that in C. elegans, chromosome termini possess 3' G-strand overhangs as well as 5' C-strand overhangs. C tails are as abundant as G tails and are generated by a well-regulated process. These two classes of(More)
TRF1 is a key player in telomere length regulation. Because length control was proposed to depend on the architecture of telomeres, we studied how TRF1 binds telomeric TTAGGG repeat DNA and alters its conformation. Although the single Myb-type helix-turn-helix motif of a TRF1 monomer can interact with telomeric DNA, TRF1 predominantly binds as a homodimer.(More)
The human mitochondrial transcription termination factor mTERF plays a central role in the control of heavy-strand rDNA transcription by promoting initiation, besides termination, of this transcription. However, until now, the mechanism underlying this stimulation of transcription by mTERF was not understood. In the present work, addition of mTERF to a HeLa(More)
Insertion/deletion (IDL) mismatches in DNA are lesions consisting of extra bases on one strand. Here, the binding of p53 and its 14 kDa C-terminal domain to DNAs containing one or three 3-cytosine IDL mismatches was examined. Electron microscopy showed that both p53 forms bound predominantly as tetramers at the lesions while single-stranded binding proteins(More)
The MBNL and CELF proteins act antagonistically to control the alternative splicing of specific exons during mammalian postnatal development. This process is dysregulated in myotonic dystrophy because MBNL proteins are sequestered by (CUG)n and (CCUG)n RNAs expressed from mutant DMPK and ZNF9 genes, respectively. While these observations predict that MBNL(More)
In this study, we utilized transmission electron microscopy to examine the contents of fluid inclusions in halite (NaCl) and solid halite crystals collected 650 m below the surface from the Late Permian Salado Formation in southeastern New Mexico (USA). The halite has been isolated from contaminating groundwater since deposition approximately 250 Ma ago. We(More)
In this review we have tried to cover the direct mounting techniques currently in use and, through micrographs kindly supplied by our colleagues, to illustrate uses of the different methods. For the novice, it is important to select one technique, taking time to become acquainted with its use in visualizing simple test samples before applying it to examine(More)