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Mammalian telomeres contain a duplex array of telomeric repeats bound to the telomeric repeat-binding factors TRF1 and TRF2. Inhibition of TRF2 results in immediate deprotection of chromosome ends, manifested by loss of the telomeric 3' overhang, activation of p53, and end-to-end chromosome fusions. Electron microscopy reported here demonstrated that TRF2(More)
  • Dirk Remus, Fabienne Beuron, Gökhan Tolun, Jack D. Griffith, Edward P. Morris, John F.X. Diffley
  • 2009
The licensing of eukaryotic DNA replication origins, which ensures once-per-cell-cycle replication, involves the loading of six related minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7) into prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs). Mcm2-7 forms the core of the replicative DNA helicase, which is inactive in the pre-RC. The loading of Mcm2-7 onto DNA requires the(More)
DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are toxic DNA lesions whose repair occurs in the S phase of metazoans via an unknown mechanism. Here, we describe a cell-free system based on Xenopus egg extracts that supports ICL repair. During DNA replication of a plasmid containing a site-specific ICL, two replication forks converge on the crosslink. Subsequent lesion(More)
The MBNL and CELF proteins act antagonistically to control the alternative splicing of specific exons during mammalian postnatal development. This process is dysregulated in myotonic dystrophy because MBNL proteins are sequestered by (CUG)n and (CCUG)n RNAs expressed from mutant DMPK and ZNF9 genes, respectively. While these observations predict that MBNL(More)
The human mitochondrial transcription termination factor mTERF plays a central role in the control of heavy-strand rDNA transcription by promoting initiation, besides termination, of this transcription. However, until now, the mechanism underlying this stimulation of transcription by mTERF was not understood. In the present work, addition of mTERF to a HeLa(More)
  • Marcela Raices, Ramiro E. Verdun, Sarah A. Compton, Candy I. Haggblom, Jack D. Griffith, Andrew Dillin +1 other
  • 2008
Single-strand extensions of the G strand of telomeres are known to be critical for chromosome-end protection and length regulation. Here, we report that in C. elegans, chromosome termini possess 3' G-strand overhangs as well as 5' C-strand overhangs. C tails are as abundant as G tails and are generated by a well-regulated process. These two classes of(More)
Analysis of human heart mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a complete absence of the -type replication intermediates seen abundantly in mtDNA from all other tissues. Instead only Y- and X-junctional forms were detected after restriction digestion. Uncut heart mtDNA was organized in tangled complexes of(More)
Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB) is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence(More)
Among several different types of repetitive sequences found in the human genome, this study has examined the telomeric repeat, necessary for the protection of chromosome termini, and the disease-associated triplet repeat (CTG).(CAG)n. Evidence suggests that replication of both types of repeats is problematic and that a contributing factor is the repetitive(More)
The nature of nuclear structures that are required to confer transcriptional regulation by distal enhancers is unknown. We show that long-range enhancer-dependent beta-globin transcription is achieved in vitro upon addition of the DNA architectural protein HMG I/Y to affinity-enriched holo RNA polymerase II complexes. In this system, HMG I/Y represses(More)