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The standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive localised breast cancer is 5 years of tamoxifen, but recurrences and side-effects restrict its usefulness. The aromatase inhibitor anastrozole was compared with tamoxifen for 5 years in 9366 postmenopausal women with localised breast cancer. After a median(More)
Uncontrolled proliferation is a hallmark of cancer. In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of the proportion of cells staining for the nuclear antigen Ki67 has become the most widely used method for comparing proliferation between tumor samples. Potential uses include prognosis, prediction of relative responsiveness or resistance to chemotherapy(More)
BACKGROUND In the adjuvant setting, tamoxifen is the established treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. However, it is associated with several side-effects including endometrial cancer and thromboembolic disorders. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy outcomes of tamoxifen with those of anastrozole alone and the(More)
BACKGROUND Little data exist on whether efficacy benefits or side-effects persist after 5 years of adjuvant treatment with an aromatase inhibitor. We aimed to study long-term outcomes in the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial that compares anastrozole with tamoxifen after a median follow-up of 100 months. METHODS We analysed(More)
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and has a high mortality rate. We tested the hypothesis that only one flexible sigmoidoscopy screening between 55 and 64 years of age can substantially reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS This randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 UK centres. 170 432(More)
Many factors determine a woman's risk of breast cancer. Some of them are genetic and relate to family history, others are based on personal factors such as reproductive history and medical history. While many papers have concentrated on subsets of these risk factors, no papers have incorporated personal risk factors with a detailed genetic analysis. There(More)
Several studies suggest that HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology in primary cervical screening. These studies had different designs and were reported in different ways. Individual patient data were collected for all European and North American studies in which cytology was routinely performed and HPV testing was included as an additional parallel(More)
PURPOSE To conduct meta-analyses of randomized trials of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) compared with tamoxifen either as initial monotherapy (cohort 1) or after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen (cohort 2). MATERIALS AND METHODS Data submitted to the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group were used in separate meta-analyses of two cohorts. Primary(More)
New predictive markers for managing prostate cancer are urgently required because of the highly variable natural history of this disease. At the time of diagnosis, Gleason score provides the gold standard for assessing the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. However, the recent discovery of TMPRSS2 fusions to the ERG gene in prostate cancer raises the(More)
BACKGROUND Optimum management of clinically localised prostate cancer presents unique challenges because of the highly variable and often indolent natural history of the disease. To predict disease aggressiveness, clinicians combine clinical variables to create prognostic models, but the models have limited accuracy. We assessed the prognostic value of a(More)