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Speech-based user interfaces are growing in popularity. Unfortunately, the technology expertise required to build speech UIs precludes many individuals from participating in the speech interface design process. Furthermore, the time and knowledge costs of building even simple speech systems make it difficult for designers to iteratively design speech UIs.(More)
BACKGROUND The validity of applying the construct of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across cultures has been the subject of contention. Although PTSD symptoms have been identified across multiple cultures, questions remain whether the constellation represents a coherent construct with an interpretable factor structure across diverse populations,(More)
We present the design, fabrication process, and characterization of a multimodal tactile sensor made of polymer materials and metal thin film sensors. The multimodal sensor can detect the hardness, thermal conductivity, temperature, and surface contour of a contact object for comprehensive evaluation of contact objects and events. Polymer materials reduce(More)
We present the development of a polyimide-based two-dimensional tactile sensing array realized using a novel inverted fabrication technique. Thermal silicon oxide or Pyrex R substrates are treated such that their surfaces are OH group terminated, allowing good adhesion between such substrates and a spun-on polyimide film during processing through what are(More)
The level of documentation of vital signs in many hospitals is extremely poor, and respiratory rate, in particular, is often not recorded. There is substantial evidence that an abnormal respiratory rate is a predictor of potentially serious clinical events. Nurses and doctors need to be more aware of the importance of an abnormal respiratory rate as a(More)
Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic(More)
—This paper presents results on the development and application of a three-dimensional (3-D) microstructure assembly technique—Plastic deformation magnetic assembly (PDMA). In PDMA, certain part of the microstructure to be assembled is plastically deformed by the magnetic force generated from the interaction between a magnetic material piece deposited on(More)
— Conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are increasing in use; however, not all environments can support the typical wireless sensor model, which utilizes RF as a communication medium. Hostile sensing and communication environments, such as underwater and subterranean, require the practical use of other methods. In particular, the underwater domain(More)
We discuss two types of micromachined flow sensors realized by using novel microfabrication processes—a hot-wire an-emometer ͑based on thermal transfer͒ and a biologically inspired flow sensor ͑based on momentum transfer͒. Both sensors are enabled by a new, efficient three-dimensional assembly technique called the plastic deformation magnetic assembly(More)
—On-chip inductors are critical for enabling portable power-efficient wireless communication systems. Existing on-chip spiral inductors based on conventional planar integrated-circuit fabrication technology suffer from substrate loss and parasitics, and have relatively large footprints. In this paper, we discuss the development of two types of on-chip(More)