Jack B. Bishop

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The objective of this research was to determine whether the frequencies of chromosomally defective germ cells increased with age in male laboratory mice. Two types of chromosomal abnormalities were characterized: (1) testicular spermatid aneuploidy (TSA) as measured by a new method of multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes(More)
The evidence for mammalian germ cell mutagenicity induced by anticancer drugs is summarized. Primary attention is paid to the three major mouse germ cell mutagenicity tests- the dominant lethal, heritable translocation, and morphological specific locus tests- from which most germ cell mutagenicity data historically have been obtained. Of the 21 anticancer(More)
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is used to treat a wide range of neoplastic diseases as well as some non-malignant ones such as rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used as an immunosuppressive agent prior to organ transplantation. CP is, however, a known carcinogen in humans and produces secondary tumors. There is little absorption either orally or intravenously and 10%(More)
Acrylamide is an animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen present in appreciable amounts in heated carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs. It is also a germ cell mutagen, inducing dominant lethal mutations and heritable chromosomal translocations in postmeiotic sperm of treated mice. Acrylamide's affinity for male germ cells has sometimes been overlooked in(More)
Because genetically based diseases have a major impact on human health, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has conducted a research and testing program for more than a decade to address chemical induction of heritable genetic damage in the germ cells of mammals. Although most genetic disease results from preexisting mutations, a(More)
Deriving No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) or benchmark dose is important for risk assessment and can be influenced by study design considerations. In order to define the di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dose-response curve for reproductive malformations, we retained more offspring to adulthood to improve detection of these malformations in the(More)
Chemicals, by virtue of their varied interactions with biological molecules, are expected to differ in the way they may alter female reproduction. Reproductive toxicity may reflect effects either on the female germ cells or on various maternal processes such as ovulation, implantation, pregnancy, and parturition. In either case, the ultimate manifestation(More)
The zygote and subsequent preimplantation stages of early mammalian development are susceptible to certain chemical perturbations that cause abnormal development of the conceptus. In certain cases, disruption in patterns of gene expression could be a primary event leading to abnormal development. To investigate this hypothesis, we treated pregnant mice with(More)
Antiretroviral therapies based on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), like zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine; AZT) and lamivudine ((-)2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine; 3TC), markedly reduce mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, AZT induces damage in nuclear DNA of mice exposed in utero and(More)
The objective of this research was to determine whether Novantrone, Oncovin, Velban, and Prednisone (NOVP) combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease increases the frequencies of the specific types of aneuploid sperm that might elevate the risk of fathering a child with one of the major clinical aneuploidy syndromes, i.e., Down (disomy 21 sperm), Edward(More)