Jack A. Ward

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Natural hydrocarbons are largely formed by the thermal decomposition of organic matter (thermogenesis) or by microbial processes (bacteriogenesis). But the discovery of methane at an East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vent and in other crustal fluids supports the occurrence of an abiogenic source of hydrocarbons. These abiogenic hydrocarbons are generally(More)
Sea temperatures were normal in Bermuda during 1987, when Bermuda escaped the episodes of coral bleaching which were prevalent throughout the Caribbean region. Survey transecs in 1988 on 4–6 m reefs located on the rim margin and on a lagoonal patch reef revealed bleaching only of zoanthids between May and July. Transect and tow surveys in August and(More)
The Asian cichlid fishes, Etroplus maculatus (Bloch) and E. suratensis (Bloch) were observed in their natural habitat. Ecological and behavioral interactions of these species have not been previously reported. E. suratensis benefits from being cleaned by E. maculatus; it is doubtful the ingestion of parasites and fungi is of much direct benefit to E.(More)
The Asian cichlids,Etroplus maculatus (the orange chromide) and E. suratensis (the green chromide) in Sri Lanka reproduce twice during the year when water conditions are favorable for nest construction and maintaining visual contact with offspring. These are the drier premonsoonal and monsoonal seasons when water turbidity decreased and salinity increased.(More)
Physiological studies revealed that agitation (simulated fanning) of the brood results in increased oxygen consumption, increased developmental rate and general promotion of brood success. It was also found that the more intense the agitation (excursions per minute) the greater the metabolic rate is enhanced. Embryos exposed to continual agitation hatched(More)
BACKGROUND The quality of vision obtained through spectacles and toric hydrogel contact lenses is important when determining which correction type is best. METHODS Twenty-six subjects with 0.75D-3.50D of refractive astigmatism were selected to wear Sunsoft Custom toric hydrogel contact lenses. Snellen acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements were(More)
Behavioural data were collected from control and experimental pairs of orange chromides, from pairing to the time of spawning. Experimental females had their pelvic fins surgically removed at the time of pairing. The pelvic fins were found to be necessary for equidistant egg placement at the time of spawning. Recently developed cartographic techniques were(More)
Reproductive effort in fish through the time of spawning should include effort spent in producing gametes, territorial defense and courtship. This investment may be repeated if eggs are lost or the pair is separated after spawning has occurred. Little is known about how investments change when fish repeat reproduction. This study examined some changes in(More)
some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. This is an electronic version of the print(More)