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Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in lung cancers are associated with increased sensitivity of these cancers to drugs that inhibit EGFR kinase activity. However, the role of such mutations in the pathogenesis of lung cancers is unclear. METHODS We sequenced exons 18-21 of the EGFR(More)
Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers. The prospect of targeted therapies and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis(More)
BACKGROUND We performed a multi-institutional randomized trial comparing preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery with surgery alone for patients with local and operable esophageal cancer. METHODS Preoperative chemotherapy for patients randomly assigned to the chemotherapy group included three cycles of cisplatin and fluorouracil. Surgery was(More)
BRAF encodes a RAS-regulated kinase that mediates cell growth and malignant transformation kinase pathway activation. Recently, we have identified activating BRAF mutations in 66% of melanomas and a smaller percentage of many other human cancers. To determine whether BRAF mutations account for the MAP kinase pathway activation common in non-small cell lung(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the onset of atrial fibrillation after thoracic surgery to allow more targeted interventions in patients with the highest risk. METHODS A comprehensive prospective database was used to identify patients undergoing major thoracic surgery from January 1, 1998, through December(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with resectable stage IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer have a low survival rate following standard surgical treatment. Nonrandomized trials in which induction chemotherapy or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation prior to surgery were used to treat patients with regionally advanced primary cancers have suggested that survival is(More)
Gene-based therapies for cancer in clinical trials include strategies that involve augmentation of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic approaches. These strategies include ex vivo and in vivo cytokine gene transfer, drug sensitization with genes for prodrug delivery, and the use of drug-resistance genes for bone marrow protection from high-dose(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with locoregional carcinoma of the esophagus or esophagogastric junction who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, it is unclear whether survival was better predicted by pretherapy clinical stage or by posttherapy pathologic stage. METHODS The authors studied 235 consecutive patients with pretherapy clinical Stage II, III, or IVA(More)