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We investigated the genetic background of intraspecific variation in wing color across an elevational gradient in the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle. The degree of wing melanization was an accelerating function of elevation, and differences in wing melanization persisted in a common environment. Full-sibling analysis and parent-offspring regression(More)
Parasitoids display remarkable inter- and intraspecific variation in their reproductive and associated traits. Adaptive explanations have been proposed for many of the between-trait relationships. We present an overview of the current knowledge of parasitoid reproductive biology, focusing on egg production strategies in females, by placing parasitoid(More)
Correlated evolution of mate signals and mate preference may be constrained if selection pressures acting on mate preference differ from those acting on mate signals. In particular, opposing selection pressures may act on mate preference and signals when traits have sexual as well as nonsexual functions. In the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle, divergent(More)
Variation in the degree of insect wing melanin affects thermoregulation, and is expected to be adapted to local environmental conditions, for example over an elevational gradient. The effects of melanization on flight activity and egg maturation rate were assessed in the closely related butterflies Colias philodice eriphyle and C. eurytheme using(More)
Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can(More)
The phenotypic plasticity of traits, defined as the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypic values of the trait across a range of environments, can vary between habitats depending on levels of temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Other traits can be insensitive to environmental perturbations and show environmental canalization. We tested levels(More)
BACKGROUND Genomic studies measuring transcriptional responses to changing environments and stress currently make their way into the field of evolutionary ecology and ecotoxicology. To investigate a small to medium number of genes or to confirm large scale microarray studies, Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (QRT-PCR) can achieve high accuracy of(More)
Species belonging to the same guild (i.e. sharing the same resources) can reduce the negative effects of resource competition through niche partitioning. Coexisting species may differ in their resource exploitation and in the associated allocation of nutrients, depending on their resource niche. Trade-offs in nutrient allocation, such as between(More)
Wolbachia pipientis can induce a range of sex ratio distortions including parthenogenesis. Recently Wolbachia has been detected in the diploid, parthenogenetic, collembolan species Folsomia candida. In this paper we address the effect of Wolbachia on reproduction in F. candida. Wolbachia infection was removed by antibiotic and heat treatment, and(More)
A moderate change in ambient temperature can lead to vital physiological and biochemical adjustments in ectotherms, one of which is a change in fatty acid composition. When temperature decreases, the composition of membrane lipids (phospholipid fatty acids) is expected to become more unsaturated to be able to maintain homeoviscosity. Although different in(More)