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Parasitoids display remarkable inter- and intraspecific variation in their reproductive and associated traits. Adaptive explanations have been proposed for many of the between-trait relationships. We present an overview of the current knowledge of parasitoid reproductive biology, focusing on egg production strategies in females, by placing parasitoid(More)
We investigated the genetic background of intraspecific variation in wing color across an elevational gradient in the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle. The degree of wing melanization was an accelerating function of elevation, and differences in wing melanization persisted in a common environment. Full-sibling analysis and parent-offspring regression(More)
In nature adult insects, such as parasitic wasps or 'parasitoids' often depend on supplemental nutritional sources, such as sugars and other carbohydrates, to maximize their life-expectancy and reproductive potential. These food resources are commonly obtained from animal secretions or plant exudates, including honeydew, fruit juices and both floral and(More)
Correlated evolution of mate signals and mate preference may be constrained if selection pressures acting on mate preference differ from those acting on mate signals. In particular, opposing selection pressures may act on mate preference and signals when traits have sexual as well as nonsexual functions. In the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle, divergent(More)
Variation in the degree of insect wing melanin affects thermoregulation, and is expected to be adapted to local environmental conditions, for example over an elevational gradient. The effects of melanization on flight activity and egg maturation rate were assessed in the closely related butterflies Colias philodice eriphyle and C. eurytheme using(More)
Increases in biodiversity can result from an increase in species richness, as well as from a higher genetic diversity within species. Intraspecific genetic diversity, measured as the number of genotypes, can enhance plant primary productivity and have cascading effects at higher trophic levels, such as an increase in herbivore and predator richness. The(More)
A reduction in dietary calories has been shown to prolong life span in a wide variety of taxa, but there has been much debate about confounding factors such as nutritional composition of the diet, or reallocation of nutrients from reduced reproduction. To disentangle the contribution of these different mechanisms to extension of life span, we study the(More)
Metal contamination in soil ecosystems is a permanent and often strong selection pressure. The present study investigates metal tolerance in 17 Orchesella cincta (Collembola) populations from metal-contaminated and reference sites, and combines analyses at the phenotypic and molecular level. Metal tolerance was phenotypically assayed by measuring survival(More)
BACKGROUND Genomic studies measuring transcriptional responses to changing environments and stress currently make their way into the field of evolutionary ecology and ecotoxicology. To investigate a small to medium number of genes or to confirm large scale microarray studies, Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (QRT-PCR) can achieve high accuracy of(More)