Jacek Skarbinski

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It is now clear that neuromodulators can reconfigure a single motor network to allow the generation of a family of related movements. Using dopamine modulation of the 14-neuron pyloric network from the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion as an example, we describe two major mechanisms by which network output is modulated. First, the baseline(More)
IMPORTANCE Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, prompt linkage to and sustained care, and antiretroviral therapy are associated with reduced individual morbidity, mortality, and transmission of the virus. However, levels of these indicators may differ among population groups with HIV. Disparities in care and treatment may(More)
Malaria rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) can increase availability of laboratory-based diagnosis and improve the overall management of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. In preparation to scale-up RDTs in health facilities in Malawi, an evaluation of four RDTs to help guide national-level decision-making was conducted. A cross sectional study of four(More)
IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk is primarily dependent on behavior (sexual and injection drug use) and HIV viral load. National goals emphasize maximizing coverage along the HIV care continuum, but the effect on HIV prevention is unknown. OBJECTIVES To estimate the rate and number of HIV transmissions attributable to(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, Malawi replaced the first-line medication for uncomplicated malaria, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-a single-dose regimen-with artemether-lumefantrine (AL)-a 6-dose, 3-day regimen. Because of concerns about the complex dosing schedule, we assessed patient adherence to AL 2 years after routine implementation. METHODS Adults and children with(More)
In the United States, an estimated 1.2 million persons are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a serious infection that, if untreated, leads to illness and premature death. Persons living with HIV who use antiretroviral therapy (ART) and achieve very low levels of the virus (suppressed viral load) can have a nearly normal life expectancy and(More)
Shortly after Kenya introduced artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, we conducted a pre-post cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of providing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) on recommended treatment (patients with malaria prescribed AL) and overtreatment (patients without malaria(More)
Given the potential worsening clinical severity of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection from spring to fall 2009, we conducted a clinical case series among patients hospitalized with pH1N1 infection from September through October 2009. A case patient was defined as a hospitalized person who had test results positive for pH1N1 virus by(More)
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent approximately 2% of the United States population, yet are the risk group most affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2010, among persons newly infected with HIV, 63% were MSM; among persons living with HIV, 52% were MSM. The three goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy are to(More)
The World Health Organization recommends parasitological confirmation of all malaria cases. Tanzania is implementing a phased rollout of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for routine use in all levels of care as one strategy to increase parasitological confirmation of malaria diagnosis. This study was carried out to evaluated artemisinin combination(More)