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Human complex metabolic traits are in part regulated by genetic determinants. Here we applied exome sequencing to identify novel associations of coding polymorphisms at minor allele frequencies (MAFs) >1% with common metabolic phenotypes. The study comprised three stages. We performed medium-depth (8×) whole exome sequencing in 1,000 cases with type 2(More)
The ghrelin receptor displays a high constitutive activity suggested to be involved in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Here, we have created peptides with small changes in the core binding motif -wFw- of the hexapeptide KwFwLL-NH(2) that can swap the peptide behavior from inverse agonism to agonism, indicating the importance of this sequence.(More)
Chemokine receptors play a major role in immune system regulation and have consequently been targets for drug development leading to the discovery of several small molecule antagonists. Given the large size and predominantly extracellular receptor interaction of endogenous chemokines, small molecules often act more deeply in an allosteric mode. However,(More)
A library of robust ghrelin receptor mutants with single substitutions at 22 positions in the main ligand-binding pocket was employed to map binding sites for six different agonists: two peptides (the 28-amino-acid octanoylated endogenous ligand ghrelin and the hexapeptide growth hormone secretagogue GHRP-6) plus four nonpeptide agonists-the original(More)
Based on a rare, natural Glu for Ala-204(C+6) variant located six residues after the conserved Cys residue in extracellular loop 2b (ECL2b) associated with selective elimination of the high constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor, this loop was subjected to a detailed structure functional analysis. Introduction of Glu in different positions(More)
The carboxyamidated wFwLL peptide was used as a core ligand to probe the structural basis for agonism versus inverse agonism in the constitutively active ghrelin receptor. In the ligand, an efficacy switch could be built at the N terminus, as exemplified by AwFwLL, which functioned as a high potency agonist, whereas KwFwLL was an equally high potency(More)
Ghrelin and its receptor are important regulators of metabolic functions, including appetite, energy expenditure, fat accumulation, and growth hormone (GH) secretion. The ghrelin receptor is characterized by an ability to signal even without any ligand present with approximately 50% of the maximally ghrelin-induced efficacy-a feature that may have important(More)
Five highly conserved polar residues connected by a number of structural water molecules together with two rotamer micro-switches, TrpVI:13 and TyrVII:20, constitute an extended hydrogen bond network between the intracellular segments of TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII of 7TM receptors. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that, although the fewer water molecules(More)
BACKGROUND The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) constitutes a key regulator of melanism. Consequently, many naturally-occurring MC1R mutations are associated with a change in color. An example is the Glu-to-Lys substitution found at position II:20/2.60 in the top of transmembrane helix II which has been identified in melanic mice and several other species.(More)
CONTEXT Isolated central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is rare and evades diagnosis on TSH-based congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening programs in the United Kingdom. Accordingly, genetic ascertainment facilitates diagnosis and treatment of familial cases. Recognized causes include TSH β subunit (TSHB) and Ig superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) mutations,(More)