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This review discusses the state-of-the-art in molecular research on the most prominent and widely applied lantibiotic, i.e., nisin. The developments in understanding its complex biosynthesis and mode of action are highlighted. Moreover, novel applications arising from engineering either nisin itself, or from the construction of totally novel dehydrated(More)
Membrane proteins responsible for the active efflux of structurally and functionally unrelated drugs were first characterized in higher eukaryotes. To date, a vast number of transporters contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR transporters) have been reported for a large variety of organisms. Predictions about the functions of genes in the growing number(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR)-type transporters mediate the active extrusion of structurally and functionally dissimilar compounds from the cells, thereby rendering cells resistant to a range of drugs. The ydaG and ydbA genes of Lactococcus lactis encode two ATP-binding cassette half-transporters, which both share homology with MDR proteins such as LmrA from(More)
Although nisin is a model lantibiotic, our knowledge of the specific interactions of prenisin with its modification enzymes remains fragmentary. Here, we demonstrate that the nisin modification enzymes NisB and NisC can be pulled down in vitro from Lactococcus lactis by an engineered His-tagged prenisin. This approach enables us to determine important(More)
Since the recent discovery that the nisin modification and transport machinery can be used to produce and modify peptides unrelated to nisin, specific questions arose concerning the specificity of the modification enzymes involved and the limits of their promiscuity with respect to the dehydration and cyclization processes. The nisin leader peptide has been(More)
When Lactococcus lactis is challenged with drugs it displays a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. In silico analysis of the genome of L. lactis indicates the presence of at least 40 putative MDR transporters, of which only four, i.e. the ABC transporters LmrA, LmrC and LmrD, and the major facilitator LmrP, have been experimentally associated with the(More)
Upon prolonged exposure to cholate and other toxic compounds, Lactococcus lactis develops a multidrug resistance phenotype that has been attributed to an elevated expression of the heterodimeric ABC-type multidrug transporter LmrCD. To investigate the molecular basis of bile acid resistance in L. lactis and to evaluate the contribution of efflux-based(More)
Overexpression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) often causes cytotoxicity and using microRNA (miRNA) scaffolds can circumvent this problem. In this study, identically predicted small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences targeting apolipoprotein B100 (siApoB) were embedded in shRNA (shApoB) or miRNA (miApoB) scaffolds and a direct comparison of the processing and(More)
LmrCD is a lactococcal, heterodimeric multidrug transporter, which belongs to the ABC superfamily. It consists of two half-transporters, LmrC and LmrD, that are necessary and sufficient for drug extrusion and ATP hydrolysis. LmrCD is asymmetric in terms of the conservation of the functional motifs of the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Important residues(More)
The lantibiotic nisin is a potent antimicrobial substance, which contains unusual lanthionine rings and dehydrated amino acid residues and is produced by Lactococcus lactis. Recently, the nisin biosynthetic machinery has been applied to introduce lanthionine rings in peptides other than nisin with potential therapeutic use. Due to difficulties in the(More)