Jaap W. Mandema

Learn More
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the new short-acting opioid remifentanil. (More)
One major task in clinical pharmacology is to determine the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) parameters of a drug in a patient population. NONMEM is a program commonly used to build population PK-PD models, that is, models that characterize the relationship between a patient's PK-PD parameters and other patient specific covariates such as the(More)
The relevance of EEG effect parameters as a measure of pharmacological effect intensity of benzodiazepines was evaluated. The concentration-EEG effect relationships of four benzodiazepine agonists, flunitrazepam, midazolam, oxazepam and clobazam, were quantified in individual rats and correlated with receptor affinity and anticonvulsant effect intensity of(More)
This study characterizes the anesthetic profile of dexmedetomidine on the basis of steady-state plasma concentrations using defined stimulus-response, ventilatory, and continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) and cardiovascular effect measures in rats. At constant plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine (range, 0.5-19 ng/ml), targeted and maintained by(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate dosing of propofol in children requires accurate knowledge of propofol pharmacokinetics in this population. Improvement in pharmacokinetic accuracy may depend on the incorporation of individual patient factors into the pharmacokinetic model or the use of population approaches to estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters. We investigated(More)
1. Oxycodone is a strong opioid agonist that is currently available in immediate-release (IR) formulations for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Recently, controlled-release (CR) oxycodone tablets were developed to provide the benefits of twice-a-day dosing to patients treated with oxycodone. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and(More)
BACKGROUND Thiopental produces a concentration-dependent continuum of effects on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) that has been linked to behavioral measures of anesthetic depth. The complexity of the response, however, limits a clear insight into the neurophysiologic actions of thiopental. The current study investigated thiopental actions on(More)
OBJECTIVE To derive a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model that characterizes the distribution of pain relief scores and remedication times observed in patients receiving intramuscular ketorolac for the treatment of moderate to severe postoperative pain. BACKGROUND The data analysis approach deals with the complexities of analyzing analgesic(More)
The pharmacodynamics of midazolam and its main metabolite alpha-hydroxymidazolam were characterized in individual subjects by use of saccadic eye movement and electroencephalographic (EEG) effect measurements. Eight healthy volunteers received 0.1 mg/kg midazolam intravenously in 15 minutes, 0.15 mg/kg alpha-hydroxymidazolam intravenously in 15 minutes, 7.5(More)
1. The purpose of the present investigation was to quantify the concentration-pharmacological effect relationship of midazolam in individual rats by use of effect parameters derived from aperiodic EEG analysis. By varying the rate and route of administration the role of (inter)active metabolites and development of acute tolerance was evaluated. 2. The(More)