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Human vision is sensitive to salient features such as motion. Therefore, animation and onset of advertisements on Websites may attract visual attention and disrupt reading. We conducted three eye tracking experiments with authentic Web pages to assess whether (a) ads are efficiently ignored, (b) ads attract overt visual attention and disrupt reading, or (c)(More)
We organize a PASCAL EU Network of Excellence challenge for inferring relevance from eye movements, beginning 1 March 2005. The aim of this paper is to provide background material for the competitors: give references to related articles on eye movement modelling, describe the methods used for extracting the features used in the challenge, provide results of(More)
Readers acquire information outside the current eye fixation. Previous research indicates that having only the fixated word available slows reading, but when the next word is visible, reading is almost as fast as when the whole line is seen. Parafoveal-on-foveal effects are interpreted to reflect that the characteristics of a parafoveal word can influence(More)
We study how processing states alternate during information search tasks. Inference is carried out with a discriminative hidden Mar-kov model (dHMM) learned from eye movement data, measured in an experiment consisting of three task types: (i) simple word search, (ii) finding a sentence that answers a question and (iii) choosing a subjectively most(More)
We study a new task, proactive information retrieval by combining implicit relevance feedback and collaborative filtering. We have constructed a controlled experimental setting, a prototype application, in which the users try to find interesting scientific articles by browsing their titles. Implicit feedback is inferred from eye movement signals, with(More)
— We investigate whether it is possible to infer from implicit feedback what is relevant for a user in an information retrieval task. Eye movement signals are measured; they are very noisy but potentially contain rich hints about the current state and focus of attention of the user. In the experimental setting relevance is controlled by giving the user a(More)
Previous research suggests that feedback circuits mediate the effect of attention to the primary visual cortex (V1). This inference is mainly based on temporal information of the responses, where late modulation is associated with feedback signals. However, temporal data alone are inconclusive because the anatomical hierarchy between cortical areas differs(More)
Attention is drawn to emotionally salient stimuli. The present study investigates processing of emotionally salient regions during free viewing of emotional scenes that were categorized according to the two-dimensional model comprising of valence (unpleasant, pleasant) and arousal (high, low). Recent studies have reported interactions between these(More)
Emotional stimuli are preferentially processed over neutral stimuli. Previous studies, however, disagree on whether emotional stimuli capture attention preattentively or whether the processing advantage is dependent on allocation of attention. The present study investigated attention and emotion processes by measuring brain responses related to eye movement(More)