Jaakko Nevalainen

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BACKGROUND Vitamin D is known to have a number of immunological effects and it may play a role in preventing allergic diseases. Objectives To study the effect of maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy on the emergence of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic eczema by the age of 5 years in children with HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility for type(More)
The aim of this study was to examine salivary flow rate and its association with the use of medication in a representative sample of 76-, 81-, and 86-year-old subjects, totaling 368. In this study, 23% (n = 80) of the subjects were unmedicated. From one to three daily medications were used by 47% (n = 168) and more than four medications by 30% (n = 104).(More)
Two recent US cohort studies suggest that current levels of particulate pollution in urban air are associated not only with short-term, but also with long-term increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present analyses was to evaluate the change in life expectancy assuming the long-term increase in mortality rates as suggested(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence for the role of food consumption during childhood in the development of β cell autoimmunity is scarce and fragmentary. OBJECTIVE We set out to study the associations of longitudinal food consumption in children with the development of advanced β cell autoimmunity. DESIGN Children with advanced β cell autoimmunity (n = 232) (ie, with(More)
Multiple imputation (MI) has increasingly received attention as a flexible tool to resolve missing data problems both in observational and controlled studies. Our goal has been to develop a valid and efficient MI procedure for the Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study, in which the diet of a cohort of newborn children with HLA-DQB1-conferred(More)
The diet of pre-school children is determined by the parents and carers. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary clusters of pre-school children and their mothers in Finland, and analyse the similarity of dietary clusters within child-mother pairs. The present study comprised the mothers (n 4862) whose child was recruited in the Type 1 Diabetes(More)
AIMS To test if changes in national alcohol policy have had an impact on alcohol use among 12- to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland over a 30-year period. METHODS Frequencies of drinking any amounts of alcohol and drinking alcohol until really drunk from bi-annual repeated cross-sectional surveys from 1981 to 2011 were examined against a national alcohol(More)
OBJECTIVE This study set out to examine how maternal initial body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy associate with advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the offspring. SUBJECTS A population-based birth cohort of 4093 children with increased human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their mothers were(More)
IMPORTANCE The role of microbial exposure during early life in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus is unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether animal contact and other microbial exposures during infancy are associated with the development of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A birth cohort of children(More)
The aim of our study was to assess the associations of serum α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations with the risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in children with HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus. A case–control study with 108 cases with advanced beta cell autoimmunity and 216 matched control participants nested within the(More)