Jaakko Lappalainen

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A nationwide study of childhood Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus was established in 1986 in Finland, the country with the highest incidence of this disease worldwide. The aim of the project called “Childhood Diabetes in Finland” is to evaluate the role of genetic, environmental and immunological factors and particularly the interaction between(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid-induced constipation is common and debilitating. We investigated the efficacy and safety of naloxegol, an oral, peripherally acting, μ-opioid receptor antagonist, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation. METHODS In two identical phase 3, double-blind studies (study 04, 652 participants; study 05, 700 participants), outpatients(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a common adverse effect of opioid therapy. AIM To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of naloxegol, an oral, peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist (PAMORA), in patients with noncancer pain and OIC. METHODS A 52-week, multicenter, open-label, randomised, parallel-group phase 3 study(More)
A gas chromatographic method for measuring concentrations of a novel D1 antagonist SCH 39166 [(−)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5-H-benzo[d]naphto(2,1–6)azepine] in rat brain and plasma was developed. The method was applied to descriptive pharmacokinetics of two subcutaneous doses of SCH 39166 (0.25 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg). For(More)
The development of tolerance to the cataleptic effect of the selective D-1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.5 mg/kg/day SC or 0.1 mg/kg/day SC) and haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day SC) during repeated administration was investigated. Catalepsy in rats was measured using the horizontal bar method. SCH 23390 induced a dose-related cataleptic effect of short duration, whereas(More)
Naloxegol (previously known as NKTR-118) is a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist engineered using polymer conjugate technology in development as an oral, once-daily agent for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC). Eligible patients with OIC (n=207), defined as <3 spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) per week with accompanying(More)
To learn more about the preclinical phase of IDDM we observed for a median period of 46.5 months (range 0.5–69 months) a group of 57 siblings positive for ICA and/or IAA when first screened within 6 months of the diagnosis of the proband. Sequential blood samples and IVGTTs were obtained at intervals of 6–12 months. Seventeen siblings (29.8%) presented with(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) demands high healthcare resource utilization. Case fatality and disability remain as common outcomes of SAH. The purpose of this study was to perform a treatment cost-effectiveness analysis of patients with SAH. METHODS We performed a long-term follow-up of the SAH patients treated in our(More)
Associations of infant feeding patterns and milk consumption with cow's milk protein antibody titres were studied in 697 newly-diagnosed diabetic children, 415 sibling-control children and 86 birth-date-and sex-matched population-based control children in the nationwide “Childhood Diabetes in Finland” study. IgA and IgG antibody titres to the proteins of(More)
The effects of chronic administration of the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (GR38032F) on dopamine (DA) and 5-hydrotryptamine (5-HT) metabolism in the major ascending dopaminergic neurons and on striatal D2-receptor binding characteristics were investigated. The metabolism of 5-HT was also studied in a number of other brain areas. Chronic(More)