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Atmospheric chemical composition affects foliar chemical composition, which in turn influences the dynamics of both herbivory and decomposition in ecosystems. We assessed the independent and interactive effects of CO2 and O3 fumigation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) at a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment(More)
The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) are increasing concomitantly globally. Little is known about the effect of these interacting gases on growth, survival, and productivity of forest ecosystems. In this study we assess the effects of three successive(More)
Human activity causes increasing background concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO2 and O3. Increased levels of CO2 can be found in all terrestrial ecosystems. Damaging O3 concentrations currently occur over 29% of the world's temperate and subpolar forests but are predicted to affect fully 60% by 2100 (ref. 3). Although individual effects of CO2 and O3(More)
To determine whether elevated CO2 reduces or exacerbates the detrimental effects of O3 on aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). aspen clones 216 and 271 (O3 tolerant), and 259 (O3 sensitive) were exposed to ambient levels of CO2 and O3 or elevated levels of CO2, O3, or CO2 + O3 in the FACTS II (Aspen FACE) experiment, and physiological and molecular responses(More)
Impacts of elevated atmospheric O3 and/or CO2 on three clones of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) were studied to determine, whether or not elevated CO2 ameliorates O3-induced damage to leaf cells. The plants were exposed for 3 years at the Aspen FACE exposure site in Wisconsin (USA) prior to sampling for(More)
The United States and Canada currently use exposure-based metrics to protect vegetation from O(3). Using 5 years (1999-2003) of co-measured O(3), meteorology and growth response, we have developed exposure-based regression models that predict Populus tremuloides growth change within the North American ambient air quality context. The models comprised(More)
At northern latitudes a rise in atmospheric humidity and precipitation is predicted as a consequence of global climate change. We studied several growth and functional traits of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) in response to elevated atmospheric humidity (on average 7% over the ambient level) in a free air experimental facility(More)
The diurnal changes in light-saturated photosynthesis (Pn) under elevated CO(2) and/or O(3) in relation to stomatal conductance (g(s)), water potential, intercellular [CO(2)], leaf temperature and vapour-pressure difference between leaf and air (VPD(L)) were studied at the Aspen FACE site. Two aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones differing in their(More)
Anthropogenic activity has increased the level of atmospheric CO2, which is driving an increase of global temperatures and associated changes in precipitation patterns. At Northern latitudes, one of the likely consequences of global warming is increased precipitation and air humidity. In this work, the effects of both elevated atmospheric CO2 and increased(More)
Air moisture is one of the main factors causing the greenhouse effect, but humidity has not been thoroughly studied at the ecosystem level. In 2006 a free-air humidity manipulation (FAHM) facility was established in Estonia to investigate the effect of humidity on the performance of two tree species—silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen(More)