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Both actual and expected morbidity systematically affect individuals’ demands for both life-saving policies and preventative health care. Using a large general-population sample, we estimate a utility-theoretic model of consumer preferences across risk reduction programs targeted at a wide variety of major health threats with differing illness profiles.(More)
We develop and test an empirical model of individuals’ intertemporal demands for health risk-mitigation programs over the remaining years of their lives. We estimate this model using data from an innovative national survey of demand for preventative health care. We find qualified support for the Erhlich (2000) life-cycle model, which predicts that(More)
Graywater is a potential water source for reducing water demand. Accordingly, a review was undertaken of graywater reuse regulations and guidelines within the 50 United States. Major issues considered included acceptability for graywater segregation as a separate wastewater stream, allowable graywater storage, onsite treatment requirements, and permitted(More)
Inadequate funding from developed countries has hampered international efforts to conserve biodiversity in tropical forests. We present two complementary research approaches that reveal a significant increase in public demand for conservation within tropical developing countries as those countries reach upper-middle-income (UMI) status. We highlight UMI(More)
There has been a conceptual shift in toxicological studies from describing what happens to explaining how the adverse outcome occurs, thereby enabling a deeper and improved understanding of how biomolecular and mechanistic profiling can inform hazard identification and improve risk assessment. Compared to traditional toxicology methods, which have a heavy(More)
We examine patterns in adults' willingness to pay for health-risk reductions. We allow both their marginal utilities of income and their marginal disutilities from health risks to vary systematically with the structures of their households. Demand by adults for programs which reduce their own health risks is found to be influenced by (1) their parenthood(More)
While there is increasing use of eco-labeling, conditions under which eco-labels can command price premiums are not fully understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that the certification of environmental practices by a third party should be analyzed as a strategy distinct from – although related to – the disclosure of the eco-certification through a label(More)
BACKGROUND Public policy can affect the allocation of resources between programs designed to prevent illnesses or injuries and programs designed to treat those who are already sick or injured. Information about preferences for treatment and prevention policies can help policy makers more effectively allocate public health resources among alternative uses.(More)
As the US pursues health care reform, it is important to understand the patterns in demand for, and opposition to, public provision of medical treatments. Using data from a nationally representative survey, we develop and estimate a utility-theoretic choice model to quantify demand for publicly provided medical treatment policies. We find diminishing(More)
This study attempts to explain explicitly the direct and quantitative effects of complicated urban built-environment on near-road dispersion and levels of vehicular emissions at the scale of several city blocks, based on ultrafine particle concentrations ([UFP]). On short timescales, ultrafine particles are an excellent proxy for other roadway emissions.(More)