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The beta-chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES inhibit infection of CD4+ T cells by primary, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains at the virus entry stage, and also block env-mediated cell-cell membrane fusion. CD4+ T cells from some HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals cannot fuse with NSI HIV-1 strains and secrete high levels of(More)
BACKGROUND In chronic HIV-1 infection, dynamic equilibrium exists between viral production and clearance. The half-life of free virions can be estimated by inhibiting virion production with antiretroviral agents and modelling the resulting decline in plasma HIV-1 RNA. To define HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics, we used plasma apheresis to increase(More)
HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) cells requires the sequential interactions of the viral envelope glycoproteins with CD4 and a coreceptor such as the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. A plausible approach to blocking this process is to use small molecule antagonists of coreceptor function. One such inhibitor has been described for CCR5: the TAK-779 molecule. To(More)
The bicyclam AMD3100 (formula weight 830) blocks HIV-1 entry and membrane fusion via the CXCR4 co-receptor, but not via CCR5. AMD3100 prevents monoclonal antibody 12G5 from binding to CXCR4, but has no effect on binding of monoclonal antibody 2D7 to CCR5. It also inhibits binding of the CXC-chemokine, SDF-1alpha, to CXCR4 and subsequent signal transduction,(More)
The identification and epitope mapping of broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies (Abs) is important for vaccine design, but, despite much effort, very few such Abs have been forthcoming. Only one broadly neutralizing anti-gp41 monoclonal Ab (MAb), 2F5, has been described. Here we report on two MAbs that recognize a(More)
To determine the factors governing inactivation and neutralization, physical, chemical, and biological assays were performed on a molecular clone of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1HXB3). This included quantitative electron microscopy, gp120 and p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, reverse, transcriptase assays, and quantitative infectivity assays.(More)
We have isolated and characterized human monoclonal antibody 2G12 to the gp120 surface glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This antibody potently and broadly neutralizes primary and T-cell line-adapted clade B strains of HIV-1 in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-based assay and inhibits syncytium formation in the AA-2 cell line.(More)
The beta-chemokine receptor CCR-5 is an essential co-factor for fusion of HIV-1 strains of the non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotype with CD4+ T-cells. The primary binding site for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is the CD4 molecule, and the interaction is mediated by the viral surface glycoprotein gp120 (refs 6, 7). The mechanism of CCR-5 function(More)
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) and its phosphorylated derivatives are rapidly broken down in 2H3 cells stimulated with antigen, with a time course which coincides with the generation of the Ca signal. Stimulated PI breakdown is absolutely dependent on Ca2+ in the medium with a concentration dependence similar to that of the Ca signal and histamine release(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) binds to cells via an interaction between CD4 and the virus envelope glycoprotein, gp120. Previous studies have localized the high affinity binding site for gp120 to the first domain of CD4, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive with this region compete with gp120 binding and thereby block virus infectivity and(More)