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The beta-chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES inhibit infection of CD4+ T cells by primary, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains at the virus entry stage, and also block env-mediated cell-cell membrane fusion. CD4+ T cells from some HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals cannot fuse with NSI HIV-1 strains and secrete high levels of(More)
We have isolated and characterized human monoclonal antibody 2G12 to the gp120 surface glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This antibody potently and broadly neutralizes primary and T-cell line-adapted clade B strains of HIV-1 in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-based assay and inhibits syncytium formation in the AA-2 cell line.(More)
The identification and epitope mapping of broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies (Abs) is important for vaccine design, but, despite much effort, very few such Abs have been forthcoming. Only one broadly neutralizing anti-gp41 monoclonal Ab (MAb), 2F5, has been described. Here we report on two MAbs that recognize a(More)
The few antibodies that can potently neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recognize the limited number of envelope glycoprotein epitopes exposed on infectious virions. These native envelope glycoprotein complexes comprise three gp120 subunits noncovalently and weakly associated with three gp41 moieties. The individual subunits induce(More)
BACKGROUND In chronic HIV-1 infection, dynamic equilibrium exists between viral production and clearance. The half-life of free virions can be estimated by inhibiting virion production with antiretroviral agents and modelling the resulting decline in plasma HIV-1 RNA. To define HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics, we used plasma apheresis to increase(More)
HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) cells requires the sequential interactions of the viral envelope glycoproteins with CD4 and a coreceptor such as the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. A plausible approach to blocking this process is to use small molecule antagonists of coreceptor function. One such inhibitor has been described for CCR5: the TAK-779 molecule. To(More)
A major unknown in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) vaccine design is the efficacy of antibodies in preventing mucosal transmission of R5 viruses. These viruses, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor, appear to have a selective advantage in transmission of HIV-1 in humans. Hence R5 viruses predominate during primary infection and persist throughout the course(More)
The beta-chemokine receptor CCR-5 is an essential co-factor for fusion of HIV-1 strains of the non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotype with CD4+ T-cells. The primary binding site for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is the CD4 molecule, and the interaction is mediated by the viral surface glycoprotein gp120 (refs 6, 7). The mechanism of CCR-5 function(More)
The bicyclam AMD3100 (formula weight 830) blocks HIV-1 entry and membrane fusion via the CXCR4 co-receptor, but not via CCR5. AMD3100 prevents monoclonal antibody 12G5 from binding to CXCR4, but has no effect on binding of monoclonal antibody 2D7 to CCR5. It also inhibits binding of the CXC-chemokine, SDF-1alpha, to CXCR4 and subsequent signal transduction,(More)