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The most significant mycobacterial diseases of free-living, captive and farmed deer are bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis), and avian tuberculosis, caused principally by M. avium subsp avium. The first case of M. bovis(More)
SETTING A deer model has been developed to study protection produced with BCG vaccination, against infection and the development of pathology, following experimental intratonsilar infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. OBJECTIVE To determine how the dose of vaccine, the route of vaccination, the viability of the vaccine and exposure to(More)
Tuberculosis (Tb) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a worldwide threat to livestock and humans. One control strategy is to breed livestock that are more resistant to Mycobacterium bovis. In a 3-year heritability study 6 farmed red deer stags were selected from 39 on the basis of their differing responses to experimental challenge via the tonsillar sac with(More)
The Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 35-kDa major membrane protein (MMP) encoded by MAP2121c is an important membrane antigen recognized in cattle with Johne's disease. In this study, purified recombinant MMP was used to produce two stable monoclonal antibodies, termed 8G2 and 13E1, which were characterized by immunoblotting, epitope mapping, and(More)
The expressed major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II DRB genes of 50 unrelated deer were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of DRB exon 2. Deer, like other mammals, have at least one highly polymorphic Mhc class II DRB gene. Thirty-four different sequences were identified. Most of the variation in(More)
Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium spp. continues to represent a major threat to human and animal health, prompting the search for effective vaccines. We have previously reported a sequential prime and boost homologous vaccination regime, using live avirulent M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) strain 1173P2, that can provide significant protection to red(More)
Macrophage inflammatory and immune functions were characterised in red deer (cervus elaphus), for use as a model for natural infection with bovine tuberculosis. Highly enriched populations of deer macrophages were obtained from 14 day cultures of plastic-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cervine macrophages produced superoxide anion in response(More)
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is emerging as the most important disease affecting farmed deer. While the disease is usually found at a low incidence involving lesions in single lymph nodes, it may present as a rapidly spreading, fulminating disease, especially in animals exposed to stress. The unique susceptibility of cervidae to mycobacteria(More)
The degree to which cross-reactivity between monoclonal antibodies developed against cells of the human, mouse, bovine and ovine immune systems, and cells of the cervine immune system occurs was investigated. It was found that within the ruminants a considerable degree of cross-reactivity does exist while there is virtually none between the cervine and(More)