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Although maturing neurons undergo a precipitous decline in the expression of genes associated with developmental axon growth, structural changes in axon arbors occur in the adult nervous system under both normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, some neurons support extensive regrowth of long axons after nerve injury. Analysis of adult dorsal root(More)
Proteins characteristic of growing axons often fail to be induced or transported along axons that have been interrupted far from their cell bodies in the adult mammalian CNS. Here, we inquire whether long axons in the mammalian CNS can support efficient axonal transport and deposition of one such protein, GAP-43, when the protein is induced in neuron cell(More)
Growth cones are specialized structures that form the distal tips of growing axons. During both normal development of the nervous system and regeneration of injured nerves, growth cones are essential for elongation and guidance of growing axons. Developmental and regenerative axon growth is frequently accompanied by elevated synthesis of a protein(More)
Development or regeneration of axons in several systems is accompanied by 20-100-fold increases in the synthesis of an acidic, axonally transported membrane protein with an apparent molecular weight of 43-50,000 (Benowitz and Lewis, 1983; Skene and Willard, 1981a, b), which we designate GAP-43. We have proposed that some step(s) in axon growth require(More)
Nerve regeneration and developmental outgrowth of axons are both correlated with increased synthesis of an axonal membrane protein designated GAP-43. Phosphorylation of an apparently identical protein, present at lower abundance in adult brains, has been correlated with long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity. We have now isolated a cDNA clone(More)
In contrast to peripheral nerves, damaged axons in the mammalian brain and spinal cord rarely regenerate. Peripheral nerve injury stimulates neuronal expression of many genes that are not generally induced by CNS lesions, but it is not known which of these genes are required for regeneration. Here we show that co-expressing two major growth cone proteins,(More)
In an effort to understand the regulation of the transition of a mature neuron to the growth, or regenerating, state we have analyzed the composition of the axonally transported proteins in the retinal ganglion cells of the toad Bufo marinus after inducing axon regeneration by crushing the optic nerve. At increasing intervals after axotomy, we labeled the(More)
In an effort to determine whether the "growth state" and the "mature state" of a neuron are differentiated by different programs of gene expression, we have compared the rapidly transported (group I) proteins in growing and nongrowing axons in rabbits. We observed two polypeptides (GAP-23 and GAP-43) which were of particular interest because of their(More)
Growth cones, the motile apparatus at the ends of elongating axons, are sites of extensive and dynamic membrane-cytoskeletal interaction and insertion of new membrane into the growing axon. One of the most abundant proteins in growth cone membranes is a protein designated GAP-43, whose synthesis increases dramatically in most neurons during periods of axon(More)