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Although maturing neurons undergo a precipitous decline in the expression of genes associated with developmental axon growth, structural changes in axon arbors occur in the adult nervous system under both normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, some neurons support extensive regrowth of long axons after nerve injury. Analysis of adult dorsal root(More)
Growth cones are specialized structures that form the distal tips of growing axons. During both normal development of the nervous system and regeneration of injured nerves, growth cones are essential for elongation and guidance of growing axons. Developmental and regenerative axon growth is frequently accompanied by elevated synthesis of a protein(More)
Proteins characteristic of growing axons often fail to be induced or transported along axons that have been interrupted far from their cell bodies in the adult mammalian CNS. Here, we inquire whether long axons in the mammalian CNS can support efficient axonal transport and deposition of one such protein, GAP-43, when the protein is induced in neuron cell(More)
Nerve regeneration and developmental outgrowth of axons are both correlated with increased synthesis of an axonal membrane protein designated GAP-43. Phosphorylation of an apparently identical protein, present at lower abundance in adult brains, has been correlated with long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity. We have now isolated a cDNA clone(More)
In an effort to understand the regulation of the transition of a mature neuron to the growth, or regenerating, state we have analyzed the composition of the axonally transported proteins in the retinal ganglion cells of the toad Bufo marinus after inducing axon regeneration by crushing the optic nerve. At increasing intervals after axotomy, we labeled the(More)
Development or regeneration of axons in several systems is accompanied by 20-100-fold increases in the synthesis of an acidic, axonally transported membrane protein with an apparent molecular weight of 43-50,000 (Benowitz and Lewis, 1983; Skene and Willard, 1981a, b), which we designate GAP-43. We have proposed that some step(s) in axon growth require(More)
We report here certain properties of three polypeptides that are rapidly transported in greatly increased amounts during the regeneration of toad optic nerves. All three of these growth-associated polypeptides (GAPs) are associated with a membrane(s) with a buoyant density similar to the plasma membrane. Since none of these GAPs are solubilized(More)
In contrast to peripheral nerves, damaged axons in the mammalian brain and spinal cord rarely regenerate. Peripheral nerve injury stimulates neuronal expression of many genes that are not generally induced by CNS lesions, but it is not known which of these genes are required for regeneration. Here we show that co-expressing two major growth cone proteins,(More)
A 37-kDa glycoprotein has been described recently, whose synthesis is dramatically increased after injury of the rat sciatic and optic nerves. Cells in the nerve sheath, distal to the site of injury, produce and secrete large amounts of this protein, so that by 3 weeks after injury, it represents 2-5% of the total soluble extracellular protein in the(More)